Top 10 Flat Belly Foods

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Your abs are made in the gym and revealed in the kitchen. A good training program develops the muscles in your midsection and the right diet helps banish bloating so you can see your abs. Here are the 10 flat belly foods you should add to your diet for a better looking (and better feeling) mid-section):Greek yogurt for belly fat

Greek Yogurt with Live and Active Cultures

Look for Greek yogurt with “live cultures (aka good bacteria)” or the “Live & Active Cultures” seal. The cultures are good bacteria that take up valuable real estate in your gut, helping your body digest food and decreasing gas and bloating. The amount of healthy, versus harmful, bacteria influences body weight and how much weight you can lose while following a lower calorie diet. Plus, a study published in the International Journal of Obesity found people who get their calcium from yogurt, as opposed to other foods, may lose more weight in their belly. Even more evidence to support yogurt consumption comes from a study showing dieters who ate five servings of dairy, such as Greek yogurt, daily lost more weight and abdominal fat than those who ate just three servings every day. A more recent review of the research found higher dairy intake was associated with lower risk of obesity in the midsection and yogurt seems to help keep weight in check.

2 Nuts

Though nuts are relatively high in calories for a small amount of food,  people don’t gain weight when they add nuts to their previously nut-free diet. A study in over 13,000 adults revealed nut eaters, those who ate at least ¼ ounce of nuts or peanuts (technically a legume) per day had smaller waists than adults who didn’t eat nuts. Additionally, tree nuts and peanuts contain a considerable amount of monounsaturated fat. Dieters who eat more foods containing monounsaturated fats may lose more belly fat than those who eat the same number of calories per day with less monounsaturated fat.

3 Asparagus

When examining dietary patterns, weight and waist circumference in close to eighty thousand people over a 10-year period, researchers found those who ate more vegetables every day had both a lower BMI and smaller waistline compared to adults who ate few vegetables. Asparagus contains prebiotic fiber, a type of fiber that is food for the good bacteria in your gut. Plus, asparagus is a natural mild diuretic making it the perfect food before hitting the beach or wearing a more formfitting outfit.

4 Avocados

Avocados contain a good amount of monounsaturated fat, not to mention nineteen vitamins and minerals. But, their monounsaturated fat is the ticket to a smaller waistline. In one study scientists gave obese adults with type 2 diabetes diets rich in saturated fat, monounsaturated fat or  carbohydrates. Those on the high carbohydrate diet ended up with fat redistributed to their stomachs while the monounsaturated fat rich diet prevented fat redistribution to the belly area. Plus, a look at dietary intake data from close to 18,000 adults found body weight, BMI and waist size were all significantly lower in avocado consumers versus those who didn’t include avocados in their diet.

5 Popcorn

Popcorn is a whole grain and when you pop it yourself on the stovetop (or in a brown paper bag in the microwave, just add good old fashioned popcorn kernels in a brown paper bag and fold the top) and top it with a little spray butter or spices for flavor, you’ll end up with a snack that takes a long time to eat and fills you up on relatively few calories. In addition, several studies show people who eat about three servings of whole grains per day weight less and have a smaller waistline compared to those who don’t.

6 Cold Pea Salad

Peas are naturally rich in resistant starch, a type of fiber that isn’t completely broken down or absorbed during digestion. Cooking and cooling peas to make a pea salad will significantly increase the amount of resistant starch they content. Rodent studies show resistant starch helps reduce stomach fat and increase hormones that tell the brain it’s time to stop eating.

7 Eggs

Choose eggs over cereal in the morning and you’ll tame hunger pangs for hours after breakfast, decreasing the likelihood of overeating later in the day. Make a meal containing at least 25 – 30 total grams of protein (the protein is in the white of the egg so this equates to 4 – 5 egg whites though you can choose any combination of whole eggs and egg whites as long as you consume at least 4 -5 of the whites) so you can cash in on the satiety-enhancing benefits of eggs. Added bonus: following a high protein diet for a short period of time can lead to significant reductions in belly fat.

8 Green Tea

The combination of caffeine and antioxidants in green tea may lead to small to moderate reductions in body fat and waist size. However, you need to consume quite a bit of it so get creative and cook with green tea by brewing it and using it to cook rice (it’s particularly good with jasmine rice), make stews, soups or stocks. You can also poach fruit green tea or use dried green tea leaves as part of a rub for meats, tofu or fish.

9 Barley

Barley is a cereal grain with a nutty taste and consistency that is a cross between pasta and rice. In a double-blinded trial (both the men and the researchers didn’t know which food they were getting), Japanese men were given rice or a mixture of rice with pearl barley. The group receiving the pearl barley and rice mixture lost a significant amount of visceral fat, the kind that covers your organs like a thick winter blanket and increases risk of heart disease, stroke and type-2 diabetes. Compared to the rice only group, the group who ate pearl barley decreased their waist size.

10 Blueberries

Blueberries are an excellent source of dietary fiber, which will not only help keep you full but also help keep your waistline in check. Plus they are a natural source of prebiotic fiber – the kind that the good bacteria in your gut munch on.

A flat belly is one of the most recognized signs of a fit body. Blast away abdominal fat with high-intensity cardio and build the underlying muscle by regularly switching up your training program. Also, incorporate a 30-minute abs classes to your routine. At least one study found you can spot reduce if you exercise the same muscle group for at least 30 minutes at a time. Keep in mind abs are made in the gym but revealed in the kitchen. Add the top 10 flat belly foods to your diet while cutting down on sugar alcohols (sorbitol, maltitol, and mannitol are the worst for causing gas and bloating), fizzy drinks and chewing gum (all of these can increase bloating at least temporarily) and you may fall in love with skinny jeans.

 

References
Clifton PM, Bastiaans K, Keogh JB. High protein diets decrease total and abdominal fat and improve CVD risk profile in overweight and obese men and women with elevated triacylglycerol. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2009;19(8):548-54.

O’Neil CE1, Keast DR, Nicklas TA, Fulgoni VL 3rd. Nut consumption is associated with decreased health risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome in U.S. adults: NHANES 1999-2004. J Am Coll Nutr 2011;30(6):502-10.

Kahn HS, Tatham LM, Rodriguez C, et al. Stable behaviors associated with adults’ 10-year change in the body mass index and likelihood of gain at waist. Am J Public Health 1997;87:747-54.

Ridaura VK, Faith JJ, Rey FE, Cheng J, Duncan AE et al. Gut microbiota from twins discordant for obesity modulate metabolism in mice. Science 2013;341:6150.

Turnbaugh PJ, Ley RE, Mahowald MA, Magrini V et al. An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest. Nature 2006;444:1027-1031.

Vidrine K, Ye J, Martin RJ, McCutcheon KL et al. Resistant starch from high amylose maize (HAM-RS2) and dietary butyrate reduce abdominal fat by a different apparent mechanism. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2014;22(2):344-8.

Bisanz JE, Reid G. Unraveling how probiotic yogurt works. Sci Transl Med 2011;3:106.

Dhurandhar NV, Geurts L, Atkinson RL et al. Harnessing the beneficial properties of adipogenic microbes for improving human health. Obesity Reviews 2013;19:721-735.

Delzenne NM, Neyrinck AM, Bäckhed F, Cani PD. Targeting gut microbiota in obesity: effects of prebiotics and probiotics. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2011;7(11):639-46.

Furet JP, Kong LC, Tap J et al. Differential adaptation of human gut microbiota to bariatric surgery-induced weight loss: links with metabolic and low-grade inflammation markers. Diabetes 2010;59:3049-3057.

Ley RE, Turnbaugh PJ, Klein S, Gordon JI. Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature 2006;444: 1022–1023.

Santacruz A, Marcos A, Warnberg J et al. Interplay Between Weight Loss and Gut Microbiota Composition in Overweight Adolescents. Obesity 2009;17:1906–1915.

Harland JI, Garton LE. Whole-grain intake as a marker of healthy body weight and adiposity. Public Health Nutr 2008;11(6):554-63.

Yadav BS, Sharma A, Yadav RB. Studies on effect of multiple heating/cooling cycles on the resistant starch formation in cereals, legumes and tubers. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2009;60 Suppl 4:258-72.

Keenan MJ, Zhou J, McCutcheon KL et al. Effects of resistant starch, a non-digestible fermentable fiber, on reducing body fat. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2006;14(9):1523-34.

Nagao T, Komine Y, Soga S et al. Ingestion of a tea rich in catechins leads to a reduction in body fat and malondialdehyde-modified LDL in men. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81(1):122-9.

Paniagua JA, Gallego de la Sacristana A, Romero I et al. Monounsaturated fat-rich diet prevents central body fat distribution and decreases postprandial adiponectin expression induced by a carbohydrate-rich diet in insulin-resistant subjects. Diabetes Care 2007;30(7):1717-23.

Fulgoni VL 3rd, Dreher M, Davenport AJ. Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2008. Nutr J 2013;12:1.

Shimizu C, Kihara M, Aoe S et al. Effect of high beta-glucan barley on serum cholesterol concentrations and visceral fat area in Japanese men–a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2008;63(1):21-5.

Du H, van der A DL, Boshuizen HC et al. Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91(2):329-36.

Peters EM, Anderson R, Nieman DC, et al. Vitamin C supplementation attenuates the increases in circulating cortisol, adrenaline and anti-inflammatory polypeptides following ultramarathon running. Int J Sports Med 2001;22(7):537-43.

 

Ketogenic Diets: Fat-Filled Lies Won’t Make You Slim (or a Better Athlete)

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How do you turn your body into a fat burning machine, run faster than Usain Bolt, recover from exercise immediately and wake up each day bursting with energy? According to some people, the ketogenic diet is your answer (learn the basics of this diet here). This high-fat, moderate protein diet that is practically void of carbohydrates forces your body to use fat for energy. LeBron James supposedly tried it and offensive lineman decided to give it a shot after an ex-NFL center and O-line coach LeCharles Bentley recommended it. However, the offensive lineman and LeBron weren’t actually following a ketogenic diet. Though these athletes didn’t really know what they were following (no worries LeCharles, I’m sure your nutrition advice is on par with me coaching the O-line), people who actually follow it swear by it. Could this be an unconventional path to weight loss and better health? Unfortunately, the ketogenic diet craze has been fattened with misinformation.

Here is what I am covering in this post:

  • Eat Fat, Lose Fat? Does the ketogenic diet make you lose weight?
  • How does this diet impact muscle?
  • The ketogenic diet and athletic performance.
  • The issue with ketogenic research studies.

I am not covering “training low” or low carbohydrate  / non-ketogenic diets in this article.

Eat Fat, Lose Fat?

During the first several days on a ketogenic diet your weight will take a nosedive. Carbohydrate is stored in the form of glycogen in liver and muscle. Each gram of carbohydrate is stored with 3 – 4 grams of water. Decrease your carbohydrate intake, use glycogen and you’ll lose water weight very quickly. Weight loss, even if from water, can motivate people driven by the number on the scale. Given that adherence is the number one predictor of weight loss when on a diet, we can’t discount psychological effect of the number on the scale going down.

What happens if you stay on the diet? A group of NIH researchers admitted seventeen overweight or obese men to a metabolic ward and placed them on a high carbohydrate baseline diet for four weeks followed by four weeks on an isocaloric ketogenic diet (this diet contained the same amount of calories as the high carbohydrate baseline diet). The men lost weight and body fat on both diets. The ketogenic diet did not lead to greater fat loss as compared to the high carbohydrate diet and in fact body fat loss slowed during the ketogenic diet and subjects lost muscle (1). Time to chuck the “carbohydrates make you fat” books in the recycling bin.

What about other studies showing ketogenic diets help athletes lose body fat and maintain performance? These studies were not actually using a ketogenic diet protocol but instead were high fat, high protein, low carbohydrate diets. Also, none of the studies measured if the study subjects were actually in nutritional ketosis (2, 3, 4).  See the section on The Issue with Ketogenic Research Studies for more information on this topic.

Ketogenic diet and weight

Regardless of the studies indicating the ketogenic diet will not lead to greater weight loss as compared to a diet composed of the same amount of calories, some may lose weight because they will end up cutting down on their favorite foods. Fewer food choices often means fewer calories consumed.

Muscle Up with the Ketogenic Diet?

The ketogenic diet isn’t high enough in protein for maximal muscle gains. Using the lower end of fat intake on a classic ketogenic diet (80% of calories), one could consume 15% of calories from protein (112 grams) on a 3,000-calorie diet. Protein requirements are at least 1.2 – 1.8 grams of protein per kilogram bodyweight (or 0.55 – 0.82 grams per lb. bodyweight) per day if training and eating a diet with enough calories to maintain weight. Protein needs go up if you are cutting calories to spare the breakdown of muscle tissue when dieting. On this diet, 112 grams of protein equals just under 1.3 grams of protein per kg bodyweight for a 200 lb. person and even less for anyone who weighs more.

In addition to inadequate protein intake, “the ketogenic diet reduces many of the signaling molecules involved in muscle hypertrophy (growth),” states Dr. Antonio Paoli, M.D., B.Sc., Associate Professor and Vice Dean of the School of Human Movement Sciences, University of Padova. Without getting too technical, even with sufficient calorie intake, the ketogenic diet suppresses the IGF-1 / AKT / mTOR pathway (5). Using ketones for energy slows muscle breakdown. However it doesn’t stop this process (5).

The Ketogenic Diet and Athletic Performance

Once fully adapted to a ketogenic diet, athletes can supposedly rely on a seemingly endless supply of body fat for energy. No need for carbohydrate gels, beans, gummies and sports drinks every 15-30 minutes during long runs, rides or triathlons to sustain energy levels. Fewer calories consumed may make it easier for some people to stay within their total daily calorie needs (though if you are training that much staying within your calorie requirements shouldn’t be difficult).

Trading carbs for fat seems like a huge benefit for athletes, particularly endurance athletes who train and compete for several hours at a time (6). In addition to utilizing body fat, fat actually produces more energy (ATP) (5). However, fat is a slow source of fuel (see graphic below), the human body cannot access it quickly enough to sustain high-intensity exercise and therefore, this diet is really only (potentially) applicable to ultra-runners and triathletes competing at a relatively moderate to slow pace.

In a ketogenic diet study examining athletic endurance, researchers had subjects cycle at a snails pace (equivalent to a heart rate of about 120 beats per minute for anyone 20-30 years old or 115 for a 40 year old) until they became exhausted before and after 4-weeks on a ketogenic diet. There were no differences in the amount of time they were able to cycle before getting tired prior to or after the four-week ketogenic diet (7). In studies examining high fat diets (not ketogenic and ketones weren’t measured) and endurance performance, study subjects relied on more fat as opposed to carbohydrate during low intensity exercise, yet there was no clear performance advantage on the higher fat diet (8). A recently published study examined 20 elite ultra-marathoners and Ironman distance triathletes. Some were habitually consuming a traditional high carbohydrate diet while the other group was following a ketogenic diet (slightly adjusted macronutrient ratios yet they were in ketosis as measured by blood ketone levels). As expected, those following a higher fat diet used a greater percentage of fat for energy while the higher carbohydrate diet group used more carbohydrate for energy during a 180 minute submaximal running test (I’d call that leisure running intensity). There was no difference in calories burned over the course of the run. Both groups had the same level of perceived exertion and there was no test to determine performance differences between groups (9).

If there’s no performance benefit and we know carbohydrates work, why follow this diet? If your primary goal is weight loss, it doesn’t matter if you use more fat than carbohydrate while exercising (SN: can we please stop talking about the fat burning zone) as long as you’re burning more total calories over the course of the day. Plus, in the interest of (if you are not an ultra endurance athlete) jack up the intensity and burn as many calories in a short period of time as possible. Unfortunately, a ketogenic diet won’t help you do that – when relying on fat for fuel, the intensity of your exercise will drop – the body simply can’t access fat (a slow source of energy) quickly enough to sustain high-intensity exercise. Instead, carbohydrates are necessary for high intensity activity.
ketogenic diet and sports

The Issue with Ketogenic Research Studies

Here’s the issue with many ketogenic research studies and media reports based on them: in most cases, the study subjects were not actually following a ketogenic diet – they were following a higher fat, high-protein low carbohydrate diet (10, 11, 12). Each person’s carbohydrate and protein limits needed to stay in ketosis vary and therefore, measuring ketones through blood or urine is the only definitive way to determine if you are in ketosis. Complicating matters more, low carbohydrate diets (including ketogenic diets) lead to a substantial drop in carbohydrate content, and associated water stored with it, in muscle. This change overestimates the drop in lean body mass as measured by DEXA.

ketogenic and low carbohydrate diets

There are no modifications, higher protein intakes or “on again, off again” (where you go on it one day and off it the next) to this diet. You must be in a state of nutritional ketosis or you will need to decrease carbohydrate and protein intake even further to get into nutritional ketosis and rely on ketones for energy.

Is There Any Benefit?

Ketogenic diets help decrease incidence and severity of seizures in epileptic patients (this is what the diet is intended for). Also, ketogenic diets may be beneficial when implemented soon after a traumatic brain injury (including concussion) (13). In addition, scientists are examining if this diet is beneficial for diseases that affect the brain such as Alzheimer’s.

If you want to lose weight, the ketogenic diet is not superior to a reduced calorie diet. Also, unless you are an ultra endurance athlete who just loves dietary fat, hates eating at social occasions and can put up with the potential side effects from this diet it isn’t for you.
Now where is the O-line? I’ve got some coaching to do…

References

1 Hall KD, Chen KY, Guo J, Lam YY, Leibel RL, Mayer LE, Reitman ML, Rosenbaum M, Smith SR, Walsh BT, Ravussin E. Energy expenditure and body composition changes after an isocaloric ketogenic diet in overweight and obese men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Jul 6. [Epub ahead of print]

2 Zajac A, Poprzecki S, Maszczyk A, Czuba M, Michalczyk M, Zydek G. The effects of a ketogenic diet on exercise metabolism and physical performance in off-road cyclists. Nutrients 2014;6(7):2493-508.

3 Rhyu HS, Cho SY. The effect of weight loss by ketogenic diet on the body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors and cytokines of Taekwondo athletes. J Exerc Rehabil 2014;10(5):326-31.

4 Paoli A, Grimaldi K, D’Agostino D et al. Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts. JISSN 2012;9:34.

5 Paoli A, Bianco A, Grimaldi KA. The ketogenic diet and sport: a possible marriage? Ex Sports Sci Reviews 2015.

6 Volek J, Noakes T, Phinney SD. Rethinking fat as a fuel for endurance exercise. Eur J Sport Sci 2014;2:1-8.

7 Phinney SD, Bistrian BR, Evans WJ, Gervino E, Blackburn GL. The human metabolic response to chronic ketosis without caloric restriction: preservation of submaximal exercise capability with reduced carbohydrate oxidation. Metabolism 1983;32(8):769-76.

8 Burke LM, Kiens B. “Fat adaptation” for athletic performance: the nail in the coffin? J Appl Physiol 2006;100(1):7-8.

9 Volek J, Freidenreich DJ, Saenz C, Kunces LJ, Creighton BC, Bartley JM, Davitt pm, Munoz CX, Anderson JM, Maresh CM, Lee EC, Schuenke MD, Aerni G, Kraemer WJ, Phinney SD. Metabolic characteristics of keto-adapted ultra-endurance runners. Metab Clin Exp 2016;65(3):100-110.

10 Tinsley GM, Willoughby DS. Fat-Free mass changes during ketogenic diets and the potential role of resistance training. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2015 Aug 12. [Epub ahead of print]2 Rouillier MA, Riel D, Brazeau AS, St. Pierre DH, Karelis AD. Effect of an Acute High Carbohydrate Diet on Body Composition Using DXA in Young Men. Ann Nutr Metab 2015;66:233-236

11  Paoli A. The ketogenic diet and sport: a possible marriage? Ex Sci Sports Sciences Rev 2015;43(3):153-62.

12  Johnstone AM, Horgan GW, Murison SD, Bremner DM, Lobley GE. Effects of a high-protein ketogenic diet on hunger, appetite, and weight loss in obese men feeding ad libitum. Am Society Clin Nutr 2008;87(1):44-55.

13 Nutrition and Traumatic Brain Injury: Improving Acute and Subacute Health Outcomes in Military Personnel (2011). The National Academies Press, Institute of Medicine. Washington DC. 2011 http://www.nap.edu/read/13121/chapter/15

 

The Ketogenic Diet Craze: Fat-Filled Lies, Part 1

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ketogenic diPicture this: a thick, juicy, tender eventeak grilled to perfection with melted butter glazed on top, gently dripping down the sides. Lying next to the steak there’s a side of dark green asparagus sautéed in coconut oil and dusted with a sprinkle of sea salt. Could a diet loaded with fat help you lose diet-resistant body fat that’s been taunting the seams of your dress pants and poking through buttons on your shirt? Will eating fat turn you into an all-star athlete? This is part 1 of a 2 part series on the ketogenic diet.

Here is what I will cover in this blog post:

  • What is the ketogenic diet?
  • Adverse health effects.

Here is what I will cover in tomorrow’s blog on this topic:

  • The issue with ketogenic research studies.
  • Is the ketogenic diet superior for losing fat?
  • How will the ketogenic diet affect muscle?
  • How will the ketogenic diet impact athletic performance?

What is the Ketogenic Diet?

For nearly a century, epileptic patients have used ketogenic diets to control seizures when common medications provide no relief. Scientists aren’t sure why following a ketogenic diet decreases the incidence and severity of seizures but it works.

The ketogenic diet contains – 80-90% of calories from fat, 15% from protein and 5% from carbohydrate (1, 2). Food choices may include heavy cream, bacon, eggs, non-starchy vegetables, mayonnaise and sausage while fruits, starchy vegetables, breads, pasta, cereal and other carbohydrate-rich foods are not allowed.

During the first several days on a ketogenic diet, your body’s limited supply of carbohydrate stored in liver and muscle tissue decreases dramatically. As a result, you will feel like you have mono – exhausted, with headaches and easy exercise will feel like you’re climbing Mount Everest (3). Once your stored carbohydrate has dwindled, ketones, formed from the breakdown of dietary fat, become the primary source of energy for brain and body. Ketogenic means “ketone forming.” It takes at least seven days to reach nutritional ketosis and several weeks to fully adapt to the diet (12). If you aren’t in nutritional ketosis (as measured by blood, urine or breath ketones; ketone levels > 0.5 mmol/L), then you aren’t following a ketogenic diet, you are on a low carbohydrate diet.

Adverse Health Effects from the Ketogenic Diet

Much of the research on adverse effects comes from studies in epileptic children since they have been on the diet for long periods of time. These studies show soon after starting a ketogenic diet, blood cholesterol levels and artery stiffness increase (4, 5). High total and LDL cholesterol are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (diseases of the heart and blood vessels). When arteries are stiff, they cannot expand as well in response to changes in blood pressure. Think of this like a garden hose when you turn up the water pressure, your hose either expands or the water bursts out of the space between the faucet and the hose. When arteries cannot open widely to accommodate increases in blood flow, blood pressure increases leading to microscopic tears on artery walls, development of scar tissue and the perfect surface for plaque buildup (6). Blood cholesterol levels returned to normal in patients who went off the diet and in those who stayed on it, they returned to normal after 6 to 12 months. Artery stiffness returned to normal after 24 months on a ketogenic diet.5 Studies in obese patients suggest ketogenic diets improve blood sugar and blood cholesterol levels over time, either due to the diet, weight loss from the diet, a combination of the two or carbohydrate restriction (7, 8). Lose weight, regardless of what you eat and blood cholesterol, blood pressure, inflammation, blood sugar and many other disease risk factors will improve.

Ketogenic diets are typically low in calcium, vitamin D, potassium, magnesium, folic acid and fiber. There are several potential consequences associated with consistently low intake of each of these micronutrients including softening of the bones, decreased bone density, muscle damage, muscle weakness or spasms, and abnormal heart rhythm. However, with careful planning, a fiber supplement, multivitamin and under the guidance of a physician who may prescribe potassium and sodium supplements (blood sodium could drop to dangerously low levels while on this diet), nutrient needs can be met. Also, to prevent constipation when on a ketogenic diet, a fiber supplement may be necessary along with more water / fluid intake then you are used to.

Here are some other potentially bad side effects from following a high fat diet:

  • Harm to your Brain. Studies in mice show a high fat diet, even when followed for as little as two months leads to chronic inflammation, sedentary immune cells in the brain – these cells typically act like janitors picking up trash and infectious compounds but when they become sedentary they stop doing their job, leading to cognitive impairment (9). Does this happen in humans and resolve over time? We don’t know.
  • Mad Bacteria in Your Gut. A diet with no probiotics (healthy bacteria) and low in prebiotics (certain types of fiber that the healthy bacteria much on for food keeping them happy) will likely change the composition of bacteria in your gut so you have more harmful and less beneficial bacteria.
  • Leaky Gut. High saturated fat meals increase bacterial toxins (endotoxins) in the intestines and intestinal permeability. In other words: leaky gut (10, 11). If you are on this diet, consider opting for foods lower in saturated fat and higher in unsaturated fats (liquid oils, avocado, nuts, seeds, olives).
  • Free radicals in overdrive? If you can’t eat a number of colorful foods including blueberries, beets, corn, oranges, and more, chances are you won’t get a wide array of antioxidant compounds to quench free radicals (compounds that are important for good health but can wreck your body when they aren’t tamed by antioxidants) as well as other plant-based compounds that keep your arteries, muscles and other parts of your body healthy. Will your body adapt? We don’t know at this time.

Are the side effects and potential negative side effects worth it if you can lose weight on this diet? Stay tuned for tomorrow’s post on how the ketogenic diet impacts body fat and athletic performance.

References

1 Freeman JM, Freeman JB, Kelly MT. The ketogenic diet: a treatment for epilepsy. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Demos Health; 2000.

2 Paoli A, Bianco A, Damiani E, Bosco G. Ketogenic Diet in Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases. BioMed Research International 2014, Article ID 474296, 10 pages, 2014.

3 White AM, Johnston CS, Swan PD et al. Blood ketones are directly related to fatigue and perceived effort during exercise in overweight adults adhering to low-carbohydrate diets for weight loss: a pilot study. J Am Diet Assoc 2007;107(10):1792-6.

4 Tanakis M, Liuba P, Odermarsky M, Lundgren J, Hallböök T. Effects of ketogenic diet on vascular function. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2014;18(4):489-94.

5 Coppola G, Natale F, Torino A et al. The impact of the ketogenic diet on arterial morphology and endothelial function in children and young adults with epilepsy: a case-control study. Seizure 2014;23(4):260-5.

6 Cecelja M, Chowienczyk P. Role of arterial stiffness in cardiovascular disease. JRSM Cardiovascular Disease 2012;1(4):1-10.

7 Dashti HM, Mathew TC, Hussein T, Asfar SK, Behbahani A, Khoursheed MA, Al-Sayer HM, Bo-Abbas YY, Al-Zaid NS. Long-term effects of a ketogenic diet in obese patients. Exp Clin Cardiol 2004; 9(3): 200–205.

8 Volek JS, Feinman RD. Carbohydrate restriction improves the features of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome may be defined by the response to carbohydrate restriction. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2005;2:31.

9 Hao S, Dey A, Yu X, Stranahan AM. Dietary obesity reversibly induces synaptic stripping by microglia and impairs hippocampal plasticity. Brain Behav Immun 2016 Jan;51:230-9.

10 Mani V, Hollis JH, Gabler NK. Dietary oil composition differentially modulates intestinal endotoxin transport and postprandial endotoxemia. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2013; 10: 6.

11 Lam YY, Ha CW, Campbell CR, Mitchell AJ, Dinudom A, Oscarsson J, Cook DI, Hunt NH, Caterson ID, Holmes AJ, Storlien LH. Increased gut permeability and microbiota change associate with mesenteric fat inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in diet-induced obese mice. PLoS One 2012;7(3):e34233.

12 Paoli, A, Grimaldi K, D’Agostino D, Cenci L, Moro T, Bianco A, Palma A. Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2012;9:34.

Meal Delivery Services & Menu Planning

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Tilapia

Menu Planning

If spending time on Pinterest boards trying to figure out what you should make for dinner this week isn’t exactly your thing, save time and energy by letting a pro do the work for you.  My colleagues at My Menu Pal sell individual meal plans for incredible prices (just $1.49 for 4 entrees, 1 – 2 side dishes with each entree, Nutrition Facts, helpful hints and a shopping list). Check out their current special and E-book by clicking here. If you want to do even less work, consider a meal delivery service.

Meal Delivery Services

There are two different types of meal delivery services – one involves popping the meals in the oven and setting the timer (I call these Heat and Eat). The second kind sends you a box of ingredients and a recipe and its your job to put the meal together (Recipe Creations). Though they cost more than buying the ingredients and cooking for yourself, they save time (and time is money, especially if you work for yourself) and may actually cost less in the the long run if you frequently eat out or food goes bad before you get a chance to eat it.

Heat and Eat

This option is for someone who travels often, is too busy to shop and cook or doesn’t want to cook. Your meals will be delivered to your doorstep and your only job is to heat them up. Most of these services have a limited number of selections that you will get tired of eating over and over again for months at a time. However, they also serve as good fill-in meals if you want a few per week to save some time on food preparation and you can cook the rest of the time.

All of the following are nationwide unless cities are specified:

Freshly (most of the U.S.)
For: athletes, general healthy eating, weight loss
* Many athletes will need 4 meals per day or more depending on calorie needs

Good variety of meals though, like all meal services, the total number of options are limited. They add at least one new meal to their menu each week. The entire menu is gluten and peanut free. They also accommodate specific dietary preferences and food allergies.

Meals are delivered fresh and never frozen. Choose from 4, 6, 9 or 12 meals per week. The more meals you get the lower the price per meal. So for instance, 4 meals per week will cost $12.50 per meal while 12 per week will cost $8.99 per meal. Free shipping. You can put your meals on pause or skip a week if you notify them ahead of time.

Fuel Food:
For: athletes, general healthy eating, weight loss
Meals are weighed and portioned. Each meal is $7.50 (if you order 300 meals!) or more. Shipping is $5 per meal in FL and more in other states.

Hello Fresh:
For: general healthy eating
Nationwide. No calorie or macronutrient information listed. Starts at $8.75 per meal for 2 or more adults. Vegetarian options available.

Bistro MD:
For: weight loss, general healthy eating (you may need to add more calories)
5 and 7 day programs for weight loss. Women’s programs average 1,200 calories per day. Men’s – it doesn’t say. At 1,200 calories per day I would be concerned about muscle loss esp. if protein intake is low. Use code RD25Off for 25% off and free shipping.

Healthy Chef Creations:
For: general healthy eating
This service includes breakfast, lunch, and dinner options. Dinners start at 15.99 for a “regular size” meal and cost about $21.99 for a “large size” meal (free shipping). Nutrition information isn’t listed though you can customize the meals to suit your dietary needs. They include a few quacky things like detox drinks and they don’t have a nutrition expert overseeing their meals.

My Fit Foods (AZ, CA, TX, OK)
For: weight loss, general healthy eating, athletes
I love how easy their website is to navigate. They have breakfast, lunch and dinner options with many meals between $5 – $8 (caveat – their meals are low in calories so most people, even those who are dieting will need 3 meals + snacks or 4 or more meals daily). For many athletes – the portion sizes will need to be 3-4x larger so that puts the meals at around $15 – $28 per meal if you are eating over 3,000 calories per day. They also have options grouped by dairy free, gluten-free, low-carb, low sodium, spicy and vegetarian.

Fresh N Fit (Atlanta, GA)
For: weight loss, general healthy eating
Flexible (no subscription required) and they have several options including Paleo, gluten-free, vegetarian, low-carb (< 15% net carbs, which means total carbohydrates – fiber), customized (you can specify no beef, no seafood, no pork etc.). Total daily calories include a 1,200 calorie option and 1,800 calorie option. At 1,200 calories per day I would be concerned about muscle loss esp. if protein intake is low. Active adults will likely need to supplement or order additional meals to get enough calories each day. Try promo code BCH10 or Mark40 to get $10 off your first order or $40 off a week plan.

Christophers To Go (Atlanta, GA)
For: general meal delivery, delivered fresh.

Nutrition information provided.

Options: Paleo, gluten free, dairy free, vegan, vegetarian.

Prices: $4.59 – $21.99 per meal
› Every meal is labeled with ingredients and nutrition information.

› The menu always has vegetarian, paleo, gluten free, and dairy free options.

Sunfare (LA and Phoenix):

They have a few different meal options including Artisan (organic, gluten-free, non-GMO, Vegetarian, and Paleo.

New Orleans: there are many local options. Check them out by clicking here.

 

Recipe Creations

This style of meal delivery is for people who don’t want to shop or measure ingredients but do want to cook. All of the ingredients are measured and delivered to your door along with the recipe. Choose this service if you enjoy cooking but you want the convenience of somebody shopping for you. You will spend time on on meal preparation – sometimes more than 30 minutes. Advantages: no food waste, saves shopping time.
Disadvantages:  if you are short on time this option is not for you because you will spend time cooking. Meal delivery services aren’t for very choosy eaters or those who have several food allergies or  sensitivities.

Plated – this nationwide subscription service allows you to choose anywhere from 1 – 7 meals per week. They offer 9 total choices per week including vegetarian, meat and seafood options.

  • Cost: starts at $12 per serving (for one person).
  • Nutrition Facts: they estimate their meals are 600-800 calories each. Click on each entrée to find out the nutrition information.

Blue Apron – this nationwide subscription service is flexible and has a wide array of recipes (there are no repeats within the same calendar).  Try before you buy – they list all recipes for each dish on their website (click on one and scroll down).  They also offer free recipes emailed to you each week (scroll down to the bottom of this page).

  • Cost: starts at about $9 per serving.
  • Nutrition Facts:  these are provided under each recipe with the caveat that different sizes of produce and amount of oil used will alter the nutrition facts.

Hello Fresh – this nationwide delivery service has three different choices and will, omnivores (meat eaters), vegetarians and a family box.

  • Cost: starts at $8.75 per person.
  • Nutrition Facts: none that I could find. They estimate each meal contains 500-800 calories per serving.

Peach Dish –  Southern cooking delivered nationwide.

  • Cost: though this service is $12.50 per meal, there’s additional shipping fee in several states including AZ, CA, CO, IA, ID, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, NV, OK, OR, SD, UT, WA, WY.
  • Nutrition Facts: listed as a separate tab on each recipe.

If you’ve tried any of these meal delivery services, please leave comments!

Meal Planning Made Easy

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salmon with veggies

If you don’t have the luxury of eating in a cafeteria with a variety of options each day, it makes sense to plan your meals ahead of time. Doing so will save you time and money. If saving money doesn’t entice you, consider this: eating at home can help you lose weight. A study published in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics found the average meal at 360 restaurant dinner meals examined contained 1,200 calories. If you choose to dine at an American, Italian or Chinese restaurant, that meal may cost you a whopping 1,495 calories. Don’t worry, I have no intention of having you replicate the instagram photos from fitness buffs who eat perfectly portioned bland-looking chicken, broccoli and brown rice twice a day, every day. Instead, I am an advocate for taste, variety, and better nutrition. Here are the 4 steps you should take to start planning better-for-you meals ahead of time:

1 – Take Inventory

Go through your cabinets, refrigerator and freezer at least once per month and throw out anything that is past it’s expiration date, freezer burned, molded, and stale or smells bad (smell your cooking oil too and if it doesn’t smell normal, toss it). Half-eaten anything that is more than a day old? Trash. This is also a great time to take inventory of what you have on hand.

2 – Stock Your Kitchen

After taking inventory, decide what you need (sticking to your grocery list will save you from impulse buys you don’t need after looking at your grocery store circular). Essential foods include shelf stable, refrigerator and frozen foods. I like the option of preparing a meal in 5 minutes or less. Frozen and canned items allow me to do this.

Shelf Stable:

  • Beans, lentils and legumes (tip: some lentils can be soaked for just 40 minutes and added to a wide variety of dishes from salads to spouse, stews and grain-based dishes)
  • Bread
  • Canned vegetables, beans, fish and chicken
  • Condiments including chicken, beef or vegetable broth, mustard, hot sauce and any other commonly used condiments
  • Cooking oil – get good quality cooking oil. Pay more for a brand you trust. Olive oil is the most adulterated food on the market so you do get what you pay for.
  • Nutrition bars
  • Nuts, nut butters and seeds (all can be refrigerated; opened nut butters should be refrigerated)
  • Popcorn, whole grain snacks
  • Protein powder
  • Rice, pasta, whole grains, cereals and other similar foods. Grab a few options that you can make in a just a few minutes including couscous. Also, vary your rice, pasta and whole grains – look for black, red or purple rice, bean pastas and more.
  • Soups (boxed, bagged or in cans)
  • Spices & seasonings (including salt and pepper). If you don’t use these regularly get dried spices or refrigerated spices in squeezable tubes.
  • Ziploc bags – these will come in very handy if you travel (always pack food and supplements to go)!

Fresh:

  • Dairy (milk, yogurt, cheese)
  • Eggs (consider egg substitutes for their shelf life)
  • Fresh vegetables and fruits
  • Fish, poultry, meat

Frozen:

  • Fish, poultry, meat
  • Fruit
  • Vegetables

3 – Menu Planning

There are a number of ways you can approach menu planning but one of the easiest ways is to center your meals around the protein rich foods you plan on eating. So for instance, if you choose chicken, lean ground beef and fish, you can center 7 meals on those three proteins. Or, if your week is hectic and you are very busy, you can plan meals around protein-rich foods that take just minutes to prepare such as canned tuna, eggs and rotisserie chicken.

After you pick your protein rich foods, decide on recipes or quick prep meals. You might want to do this by determining what perishable foods you have on hand and need to use. So, let’s say you have mushrooms in the refrigerator and chicken defrosting. If you don’t feel like eating chicken Marsala but you aren’t sure what else you can make with a little flavor, type these words in Google to get other meal ideas “chicken, mushrooms, recipe, quick, easy.” (Also check out Cookinglight.com’s “5 Ingredient Cookbook, Fresh Food Fast”)

After determining which meals you are eating each day of the week, write a shopping list by figuring out any extras you may need to buy and what staple foods you are out of. Be flexible with your list depending on the season and sale prices. Shopping in season often means you will not only get the best looking produce but you will save money too. So for instance, if your recipe calls for sweet potatoes but butternut squash is a steal – go for the squash.  When you make your shopping list, you can do it on an app, in the notes section on your phone, or the old fashioned way with pen and paper. I make mine in the order of the grocery store I am shopping in so I can cross items off one by one without having to scan the entire list to make sure I’m not forgetting something before I move onto the next section of the store.

If the weekly circular tempts you with sugary cereals, cookies and candies on sale, don’t pick it up. You won’t miss out on a bargain because you’ll figure out which healthy foods are on sale when you look for the items on your list – all stores flag these items for you.

Quick sample meal ideas:

  • Rotisserie chicken, 10 minute brown rice (or thawed and microwave brown rice from your freezer), frozen veggies
  • Rotisserie chicken wraps with hummus (spread the hummus on first) and any crunch veggies you desire (shopped carrots, cucumbers etc.)
  • Whole-wheat pasta, spaghetti sauce and frozen turkey meatballs with added veggies such as cooked (or steamed) mushrooms, squash, zucchini
  • Whole wheat pasta, canned tuna, light cream of mushroom soup (either made into a casserole and baked along with frozen peas, ½ cup milk and chopped onions at 400ºF for 20 minutes or you can heat up the soup and mix the ingredients together and eat it.
  • Canned tuna, light mayo, chopped celery and onions for a tuna sandwich.
  • Grilled salmon drizzled with lemon, asparagus and a sweet potato.

4 – Storing and Packing

You can freeze almost any food and reheat it easily. Even brown rice – just cook it, let it cool completely and portion it into zip-loc bags (make sure no air is in the bag) for later. Two important things to remember when freezing foods – freeze them in airtight containers and label them so you know what you made and when it was frozen. The longer you leave food in the freezer the greater the likelihood of texture and taste changes over time (sometimes resulting in freezer burn). Foods that freeze well include:

  • Breads
  • Canned foods (once out of the can of course)
  • Casseroles (keep in mind that mayonnaise and other cream sauces do not freeze well)
  • Egg whites (raw)
  • Grains, cooked
  • Granola (homemade or store bought)
  • Herbs, fresh
  • Nuts, seeds (these should not be kept opened on shelves for long periods of time as they can go rancid)
  • Cheese – some types freeze better than others
  • Fish, poultry, meat (raw meat and poultry freezes better than cooked meat and poultry because of moisture lost during cooking).
  • Fruit, though this must be completely dry and frozen in portions (unless you want it stuck together in big clumps). The texture may change so fresh fruit that is frozen may be best used when blended in shakes.
  • Sauces
  • Soups, stews, stock
  • Yogurt – if you want to eat it frozen. If it defrosts the consistency isn’t so great.

Thaw food in the refrigerator, a microwave or immersed in cold water only (in a leak proof plastic bag submerged in the water that should be changed every 30 minutes), not out on countertops or in kitchen sinks.

Recommended Freezer Storage Time (for quality only, frozen food is safe indefinitely if left frozen).

Food Months
Bacon and Sausage 1 – 2
Casseroles 2 – 3
Egg whites or egg substitutes 12
Frozen dinners 3 – 4
Ham, hotdogs, lunchmeats 1 – 2
Meat, uncooked roasts 4 – 12
Meat, uncooked steaks or chops 4 – 12
Meat, uncooked ground 3 – 4
Meat, cooked 2 – 3
Poultry, uncooked whole 12
Poultry, uncooked parts 9
Poultry, cooked 4
Soups and stews 2 – 3
Wild game, uncooked 8 – 12

See, that wasn’t so tough! Get started planning, preparing and cooking right away. If there are a limited number of dishes you feel comfortable cooking, check out quick and easy cookbooks or resources on line. Each time you try a new recipe you’ll expand your horizons and taste buds and also be able to prepare a wider variety of meals on the fly in the future.

References
USDA. Freezing and Food Safety. http://www.fsis.usda.gov/factsheets/focus_on_freezing/

 

When You Should Eat if You Want to Lose Weight

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As adults we are taught to eat when it is time to eat – first thing when we wake up before leaving for work, during our lunch hour, at dinnertime. And, if you’ve ever been on a diet you probably followed specific rules regarding  when you should eat and when you should put your fork down. And though all of these time-based schedules for eating contradict intuitive eating – eat when you are hungry (hello simplicity!) – there may be something to meal timing if your goal is weight loss…

Animal studies suggest when we eat may be just as important as what we eat. And, a recent human study examining the timing of meals and weight loss while on a Mediterranean diet + physical activity intervention provided support for this meal timing theory. Study authors found those who were described as “late lunch eaters” (before 3 pm) lost significantly less weight than “early lunch eaters” (after 3 pm) though reported calorie intake was similar between both groups. Another pattern that is important to note – those who ate lunch late also ate dinner late compared to the early lunch eaters.

Though you may want to start setting your alarm clock for mealtime, keep in mind that this study showed an association, not causation (they didn’t intervene and change meal times and then analyze the results). And therefore, it is possible that those who ate lunch early had specific lifestyle characteristics, genetics or sleep patterns that contributed to their changes in weight while on this diet and exercise intervention. Plus, they didn’t report changes in body fat (though they did take these measures) so it isn’t clear if the early eaters lost more fat or muscle or both. But, here’s how you can take this new study and additional research (plus my observations) on this topic and figure out what is best for you:

  • If you have disordered eating/an eating disorder, follow the advice of your RD regarding meal timing.
  • Shift your food intake to earlier in the day because, eating earlier may prevent bingeing or overeating later on. Clients who have a skewed eating pattern – dieting during the day and eating as little as possible – tend to overeat at night (and make less than wise choices). So, make sure you actually eat meals (at least 3 per day).
  • Eating more often seems to decrease hunger and improve appetite control.
  • Eating multiple times per day will not make you burn more calories.
  • Eat a good amount of protein at each meal to preserve muscle during weight loss (30 grams or about the size of your palm; more than this if you have little hands). The more calories you cut the more protein you need to hold on to your muscle.
  •  If you hate breakfast, skip it. But, eat a meal as soon as you are hungry (I don’t care if it isn’t “mealtime”) and eat your lunch whenever you are hungry after that.
  • Eat your meals when you are hungry (or a snack to hold you off if you are eating with others at a set time). There’s something to be said for paying attention to your body. If you just ate lunch and you are hungry an hour later, than eat. Have a little faith in your hunger cues.

References:

J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2011; 8: 4.
Int J Obes (Lond). 2013;37(4):604-611.

Do Carbohydrates Make You Fat?

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When I was in college I would often eat 3-4 bagels per day (free from the cafeteria and portable), along with cream of wheat in the morning, fruit and/or starchy veggies at lunch, heaping quantities of brown rice at dinner, and a bowl (or two) of Raisin Bran with milk after dinner. I wasn’t on an all carbohydrate diet, I ate all of this in addition to regular meals . As a cross country runner, I was just plain hungry. Despite my high carb diet, my body fat via underwater weighing (the benefit of being an exercise physiology student) was very low, as in elite distance runner low. So when I hear people suggest carbohydrates are a surefire path to obesity for everyone, I shake my head and think “no, clearly they are not.”

Carbohydrates have taken a hit in recent years because 1) they taste good and are therefore easy to overeat (Which one tastes better: a jumbo size blueberry muffin or grilled chicken breast?) and 2) carbohydrates stimulate the release of insulin from our pancreas, a hormone that increases carbohydrate (in the form of sugar) uptake by muscle and fat cells while also suppressing the breakdown of fat tissue. Sounds like a double whammy right? It definitely can be if you chronically overeat. But, if you only eat the amount of calories you need each day or less than you need over time, you’ll maintain or even lose weight (in the absence of Type 2 diabetes or insulin resistance). And that is why the weight loss research shows that over time higher carbohydrate diets result in similar weight loss as low carbohydrate diets in healthy individuals. However, there are two big caveats to this “total calories” approach to weight loss:

1) If you don’t eat enough protein each day (and I recommend a minimum of 30 grams of protein at breakfast, lunch and dinner) – 0.55 – 0.91 grams per pound of body weight per day, you will lose a good bit of muscle during weight loss.

2) If you have insulin resistance, PCOS or Type 2 diabetes, a lower carbohydrate diet combined with exercise is the most effective way to take off weight (work with your MD to adjust any glucose lowering medications or insulin you are on based on your change in diet and/or drop in weight).

If you want to read more on this topic including the design of an exciting upcoming study, check out this thorough overview I wrote for FitnessRx.

In the meantime, remember there is no one perfect diet for all people. Are there times I ask my clients to cut down on their intake of carbs (particularly the junk food carbs)? Yes, absolutely. But, I take their overall diet, goals and what they will realistically do into account. And you should too. Because adherence, the ability to stick with a diet program, is the biggest factor that will predict weight loss success. So don’t jump on your neighbor’s diet detox 2 shakes-per-day bandwagon or let yourself be dragged to Weight Watchers meetings while kicking and screaming.  Instead, take into account your current food intake (what do you like to eat?), lifestyle, cooking skills, medical history, diet history and physical activity and come up with a plan that works for you.

Keeping the weight off: is diet the only strategy?

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By Gisselle Marie Rosa

You’ve done everything right by eating sweets less often, cutting down on drinks with added sugar, and eating more fruits and vegetables. But what happens when it becomes harder to shed those last five or ten pounds? What if you just want to stay at a healthy weight? Well, get moving!

Physical activity is a fabulous way to boost metabolism (calories burned) and help you reach your health goals. Studies show exercise can help you lose more weight than dieting alone. Plus resistance exercise (weight lifting for instance) will help you maintain or even build muscle mass when dieting. This is important because we lose fat, muscle and a tiny bit of bone when dieting. Add resistance exercise to your routine and you’ll help protect muscle tissue while losing a greater portion of fat. Unfortunately, only 49.6% of Americans are meeting the Physical Activity Guidelines, which indicate that adults should do at least 150 minutes a week of moderate aerobic activity, like brisk walking or cycling.

Getting 150 minutes of exercise a week may seem like a lot, but, when you space it out throughout the week, it is definitely doable. For instance, if you spend 30 minutes a day being active, you can reach 150 minutes in just 5 days. Also, studies show that exercising in 10 minute increments throughout the day is just as beneficial as spending the full 30 minutes exercising. This is perfect for individuals who work all day and for busy moms or dads who just can’t seem to be able to spend that much time exercising.

Exercise is also amazing because it can help you maintain your goal. It also lowers your risk for diseases such as Type 2 Diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and even depression.

So what’s the best way to start adding physical activity to your routine? Find something that you love to do! If you choose an activity you enjoy, you are more likely to stick with it. There are many ways you can be physically active without feeling stuck using a treadmill at the gym. Many gyms offer a variety of fitness classes like dance, yoga, kickboxing, and trampoline jumping. If a gym is not your scene, consider taking a brisk walk or biking outside and getting some fresh air.

Wherever your interests lie, being physically active is a great way to de-stress, achieve a healthy weight, and have fun.

References

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Facts about Physical Activity. Version current 20 May 2014. Internet: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/exercise.htm.

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. How Much Physical Activity do Adults Need? Version current: 3 March 2014. http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/everyone/guidelines/adults.html

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Physical Activity and Health. Version current: 16 February 2011. http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/everyone/health/index.html

Pros and Cons of Grain Brain, Wheat Belly and the Paleo Diet

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Diet books are tempting. They tell you the reason you’re overweight, what foods are “toxic” and how to get rid of them while strolling down the yellow brick road to lasting weight loss and good health. But there’s one main issue – many of these books aren’t based on scientific evidence but instead theories that are pulled out of thin air. “But my neighbor lost 50 lbs. following Paleo!” Well your neighbor cut out potato chips, beer and fried food in the process so of course he lost weight. The Paleo diet just gave him a convincing (even if scientifically inaccurate) reason to cut these foods out.

All of these diets have some pros and cons which I expand upon in this TV segment I did for Fox 5 and below the video:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KQyfQ5hf_Qc&feature=youtu.be

Gluten is a protein formed from other proteins (gliadins and glutenins; any single wheat plant may produce > 100 gliadins and > 50 glutenins) naturally found in wheat foods when wheat flour is mixed with water (the mechanical action of mixing plus the water are necessary). Other proteins that are similar to gluten are found in barley (hordiens) and rye (secalins). Gluten gives dough it’s tough elastic structure and contributes to the light and fluffy texture of baked goods. If it sounds complex, it is but here are the important points:

  • Wheat today doesn’t have more gluten (or create more gluten when mixed with water) than varieties from 70 years ago unless the manufacturer adds vital wheat gluten back to the food itself (J Plant Reg 2012;6(1)).
  • Wheat breeding is complex and focuses on creating varieties of wheat that meet what food makers and consumers are looking for – a flaky pie crust or nice soft wheat bread for instance.
  • Gluten isn’t an easy to digest protein (there are many foods we eat that are not completely broken down) but, this isn’t a problem for most people – only those with celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (which might not be due to gluten alone but instead FODMAPs).

Paleo: What You Need to Know

The Paleo diet is based on one main principle: if we eat like our hunter-gatherer ancestors who lived between 2.6 million to 10,000 years ago, before the start of the agricultural revolution, we will avoid modern diseases such as heart disease as well as infections.

This diet is based on grass-produced meats, fish/seafood, fresh fruits and vegetables, eggs, nuts and seeds and “healthful” oils. Everything else is off limits.

Paleo’s Glaring Oversights:

  • there was no one single Paleo diet – diets varied based on region and time period (check out Christina Warinner’s TED talk on this)
  • In several regions, well over 10,000 years ago and possibly even a few million years ago, people ate grains and legumes.
  • Examination of mummies tells us that all people from this time period had clogged arteries.
  • The fruits, vegetables and meats we have today look nothing like what our ancestors ate (ex: fruit were small, tough and bitter).
  • Our ancestors hunted and gathered food – in other words, their daily lives included physical activity (both strength training which builds muscle and bone and aerobic exercise).

Paleo – What’s Good:

  • The Paleo diet cuts out our top sources of calories in the US including alcohol, desserts and sugar sweetened beverages.
  • It’s loaded with protein which will keep you full for a longer period of time after eating and help you build muscle.
  • Plenty of fruits and vegetables!

Paleo – What’s Bad:

  • No legumes (peas, beans, lentils and peanuts) – legumes are rich in fiber, potassium, magnesium (some), iron (some), antioxidants and more.
  • No grains. Grains provide a good bit of the fiber in the average American diet in addition to folate, other vitamins and antioxidants.
  • No dairy – our top source of bone building calcium and vitamin D. Now, I know what some self proclaimed nutrition experts will say here – people in Africa (or insert other country here) don’t consume much calcium and they don’t have as many cases of osteoporosis as we do in the U.S. Go to Africa, conduct dietary recalls (to see what they are indeed eating) and then follow a group of women around for several days. The women I met from Africa a few years ago were big and strong thanks to farm work (in their particular country the women do all the farming). They walked (far) with buckets of water on their head daily (fantastic way to build bone density in the spine!). I don’t know any females in the U.S. who get near the bone building activity these women are getting on a daily basis. So, this is far from a valid comparison. (SN: I haven’t even bothered to research the incidence of osteoporosis here vs. Africa because I’d be comparing a largely sedentary desk-sitting population to one with different genetics that also gets bone building activity for hours each day).

Diet magic? Follow anything that makes you cut calories and you’ll lose weight. Eat more protein and you’ll tend to lose more fat than muscle.

Low Carb vs. Low Fat

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A recently published article took on a brewing battle between diets: low carb versus low fat. Which is best for weight loss? They took 106 overweight and obese people and put them on a reduced calorie (1433 – 1672 calories) very low carbohydrate diet (4% of calories) or low fat diet for a year and measured weight loss, well-being, mood and memory. Sixty-five people stuck with the diet over a year and lost an average of about 30 lbs each. There were no significant between group differences in weight lost.

Despite the equal weight loss between groups, the people on the very low carbohydrate diet were more likely to have experienced an unfavorable mood. Now, the take home message here, if misconstrued by the media, might be to eat your carbohydrates and ditch the fat but, here’s the key: both diets were calorie restricted. Just cutting down on fat and eating bread and pasta like it’s going out of style will get you no where, I promise. And, keep in mind that they ate a very low carbohydrate diet – just 4% of calories (a maximum of about 16 grams of carbohydrate – the amount in a very small apple). I’d be downright grouchy and confused too if I ate just 16 grams of carbs a day. So, yes, you can go on either very low carb or low fat (or actually do a low carbohydrate vs. very low carbohydrate) diet and see results…… if, you stick with it and in the case of the low fat diet, you better be counting your calories too.

This study differs from many low carbohydrate studies (including the Atkins Diet) because some low carb approaches don’t restrict calories which can make things a bit easier – just eat when you want but opt for low to no carb foods.

So here’s my take-home message: a person’s diet should depend in part on the research and largely on what they are willing to do that fits into their lifestyle. Low carb, low fat, counting calories, people vary tremendously in what they can realistically stick with. And having a come to truth meeting with yourself first will pay off in the end.