Can the Internet Really Supply You With Healthy Meals?

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You’ve probably heard about one or more of the new meal delivery services on the market. Popular services include Blue Apron, Plated and Hello Fresh. If you’re not familiar with any meal delivery service providers, check out this in-depth review of the various choices currently available.

There’s no question having pre-portioned ingredients with recipes and directions delivered directly to your door is convenient. However, convenience comes with a price. Most of the meals cost between $9 and $13 per serving.

So, do these meals live up to the hype? Can the internet really supply you with healthy meals?

What is a “Healthy” Meal?

To review and compare the available options for getting healthy meals online, we’re going to use the following criteria (which are fit for the vast majority of healthy people). A healthy meal is one that:

  • Includes a lean protein, a high ratio of fruits and/or veggies, a whole grain, a serving of dairy and a healthy fat
  • Doesn’t include excess fat or added sugar
  • Is between 500 and 700 calories per serving (very active individuals and athletes may need more calories per meal)

Comparison

Blue Apron – Meal #1: Spaghetti Bolognese with Butter Lettuce Salad & Creamy Italian Dressing

Lean protein: No
Fruits and vegetables: Yes
Whole grain: No
Dairy: Yes
Healthy fat: Yes
Added sugar: No
Calories per serving: 770
Saturated fat: 11 g
Trans fat: No

Blue Apron – Meal #2: Za’atar-Spiced Chicken with Pink Lemon Pan Sauce & Pearl Couscous

Lean protein: Yes
Fruits and vegetables: Minimal
Whole grain: No
Dairy: No
Healthy fat: Yes
Added sugar: No
Calories per serving: 750
Saturated fat: 9 g
Trans fat: No

The Results
Both of the meals from Blue Apron come in over the 700 calories per serving mark, though both are less than 800 calories. If you are eating a 2,000 calorie diet, though, that’s still almost 40 percent of your calories in one meal. These meals are also relatively high in saturated fats, clocking in at 11 g and 9 g per serving, which is more than half of the recommended allowance of 16 g per day on a 2,000 calorie diet.

Blue Apron includes video tutorials with each of their recipes to demonstrate proper cooking techniques. All of the video lessons are available on YouTube. If you have trouble accessing any of the videos, you might be getting blocked by a content filter on your internet connection. Using a virtual private network can help you bypass the content filter so that you can access the videos no matter where you’re preparing to cook.

Hello Fresh – Meal #1: Wasabi Lime Salmon over Soy-Simmered Rice with Baby Bok Choy

Lean protein: Yes
Fruits and vegetables: Yes
Whole grain: Yes
Dairy: No
Healthy fat: Yes
Added sugar: No
Calories per serving: 660
Saturated fat: 4.5 g
Trans fat: unknown

Hello Fresh – Meal #2: Dukkah-Crusted Chicken with Sweet Potatoes and Sugar Snap Peas

Lean protein: Yes
Fruits and vegetables: Yes
Whole grain: No
Dairy: Yes
Healthy fat: Yes
Added sugar: No
Calories per serving: 510
Saturated fat: 4 g
Trans fat: unknown

The Results
In this review, Hello Fresh’s offerings both came in under 700 calories per serving and all of the meal options included a lean protein, a serving of vegetables and a healthy fat. Hello Fresh does not document the amount of trans fat in their recipes, so that information was not available for comparison. Also, at less than five grams per serving, both of their recipes also included a relatively low amount of saturated fat, at less than 5 grams per serving. If you want to try Hello Fresh’s recipes for yourself – they include them on their website (see Recipes at the top of the navigation screen).

Plated – Meal #1: Soy-Glazed Turkey Meatloaf with Coconut Rice and Greens

Lean protein: Yes
Fruits and vegetables: Minimal
Whole grain: No
Dairy: No
Healthy fat: Yes
Added sugar: Yes
Calories per serving: 840
Saturated fat: unknown
Trans fat: unknown

Plated – Meal #2: Cheesy Sweet Onion Panini with Truffle Fries

Lean protein: No
Fruits and vegetables: Minimal
Whole grain: No
Dairy: Yes
Healthy fat: Yes
Added sugar: No
Calories per serving: 870
Saturated fat: unknown
Trans fat: unknown

The Results
Of the three services we reviewed, Plated fared the worst. Their meals were both over 800 calories per serving, and the site doesn’t offer information regarding trans or saturated fats for their recipes. Also, there was very little focus on healthy ingredients, such as whole grains and vegetables. While the meals looked delicious, they probably can’t be called healthy.

In this limited review, Blue Apron and Hello Fresh both fared well in their offerings of healthy options. Their meals were low in calories, relative to the other options, and included many of the other markers of health, such as lean proteins and a high ratio of vegetables.

Meal delivery services claim they can deliver all the ingredients, recipes and cooking instructions you need to create healthy meals in your home. A closer look, though, indicates you might need to supplement some of these meals with other ingredients so that they can give you all the nutrients you need.

This is where you come in. Everyone has a different diet and everyone’s body processes food differently. So while healthy meals are available through the internet, you need to do a little homework to make sure these services’ meal options live up to their promises and offer the kind of food that will support your lifestyle.
About the Author: Cassie is a fitness professional and writer. She loves helping people learn about health and fitness and teaching them how to make the healthiest choices for their body’s individual needs.

Spring Clean Your Diet, Satisfy Cravings

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If warmer weather and fresh air send you into tidying mode, don’t forget your pantry. Spring clean your pantry and refrigerator and you’ll make better food choices and improve your health in the long run.

Count on Color for Protecting your Body

The colorful compounds in fruits, vegetables and grains protect plants from diseases and pests. In your body they help protect your tissues including skin, bone and muscle, from harm. Think of all forms of produce and grains in a variety of colors (see below). Fresh, frozen, 100% juice, dried or roasted veggie snacks and dried fruits with no added sugar (I often turn to figs and raisins when I want something sweet).

Here’s an example of of what color can do for you:

Orange fruits and vegetables may be protective against bone loss.

Black, deep red and dark purple produce and grains (examples: black rice, purple carrots, 100% grape juice made with Concord grapes, 100% pomegranate juice) are good for artery health; they help expand arteries to accommodate greater blood flow (very important for maintaining healthy blood pressure).

Dark greens are good for skin and eyes. They can help eyes adjust to bright light and also support night vision. Some examples include spinach, kale, turnip greens, collard greens, broccoli, zucchini, Brussels sprouts and romaine lettuce.

Add Snacks that Satisfy Hunger and Taste

When you want to satisfy hunger, look for foods high in protein and fiber. If you want to satisfy hunger and taste at the same time, consider options that fulfill your cravings. Looking for salty and crunchy? Beanitos hint of lime chips are amazing with guacamole. Searching for something sweet? Yogurt parfaits, granola + milk (Purely Elizabeth’s and The Toasted Oat are 2 of my favorites). There are also a number of bars that satisfy hunger and taste at the same time. Check out the newest Luna bars including chocolate dipped coconut (you won’t miss Mounds or Almond Joy). Find a few other crave worthy options here.

Discover Missing Nutrients

Vitamin D has been the rage for years but there are other nutrients that are ‘shortfall nutrients,’ those most of us do not consume in adequate amounts. Among them are potassium and magnesium.  Potassium is important for healthy blood pressure, nerve and muscle functioning and removing waste products from cells. Branch out from bananas and consider including leafy greens, carrots and potatoes and citrus fruits such as oranges and grapefruits for potassium. Think out of the box with kale chips, roasted carrots and potatoes or slow cooker vegetables with potatoes. Magnesium is  necessary for muscle and nerve functioning, blood sugar control, bone health, blood pressure regulation, energy production and normal heart rhythm. It also helps with sleep and muscle relaxation. Get a little more magnesium with beans, nuts, seeds, dark green leafy veggies, avocados and potatoes.

In addition to focusing on the food mentioned here, place foods you want to consume at eye level and treats you want to eat rarely in the back of the cabinet or bottom of the freezer out of sight and reach. Chances are, you’ll forget they are there.

 

Is TMAO from Fish, Meat and Eggs Harmful?

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In another confusing nutrition story that should be titled “is there anything left for us to eat?” recent research threw a curveball. Fish, a staple of the Mediterranean diet, as well as meat and eggs may be doing more harm than good thanks to a compound called trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). TMAO is found in fish and produced in the body after eating meat and eggs. TMAO is linked to greater risk for heart attack, stroke and death; yet the research isn’t crystal clear. Is it time to give up fish meat and eggs or ignore the recent media headlines?

This post will cover:

  • TMAO: More than a Gut Reaction—What gives us higher TMAO levels?
  • TMAO and health?
  • The bottom line

TMAO: More than a Gut Reaction

Blood levels of TMAO are ~ 50 times higher after eating fish compared to eggs or beef. The human body absorbs intact TMAO like the kind found in fish, easily. However, the human body’s production of TMAO, after eating foods containing the essential nutrient choline (found in eggs and meat) and the compound l-carnitine (found in meat and pork and in much smaller quantities in chicken breast and dairy products), depends on the makeup of bacteria in your gut, kidney functioning and genetics.

In one study, regular meat eaters produced more TMAO than a vegetarian did after eating steak (which contains ~ 180 mg of l-carnitine). After wiping out their gut bacteria with antibiotics, the carnivores didn’t produce any TMAO after consuming 250 mg l-carnitine. The makeup of gut bacteria in the habitual meat eaters was presumably responsible for greater TMAO production compared to the vegetarian, yet this was a small study and we don’t know anything else about the participants’ diet. Was it the meat that altered gut bacteria or something else in their diet? After all, a steady diet of red meat may mean double cheeseburgers on white bread with regular servings of French fries and soda on the side. This isn’t exactly the diet you want for promoting good bacteria in your gut.

Another study found blood levels of TMAO were greater in those with a less diverse makeup of microbes and greater amounts of a less healthy type of bacteria (firmicutes), compared to one that is healthy (bacteroidetes). A diet higher in saturated fat will promote this environment.

While bacteria seem to influence TMAO production from l-carnitine, l-carnitine also influences the makeup of gut bacteria. A study in mice found those with their gut bacteria wiped out thanks to antibiotics produced a different makeup of bacteria in the gut after consuming l-carnitine while also doubling the risk of plaque buildup in their arteries.

Higher TMAO levels come from:

  • Eating fish
  • Less diverse array of gut bacteria and increased levels of bad versus good bacteria
  • Consuming l-carnitine (mouse study)

TMAO and Health

A few human studies found higher blood levels of TMAO were associated with greater risk for heart disease. However, all research isn’t pointing in the same direction. One study in over 300 patients found blood TMAO levels were not associated with heart attack or heart disease over the course of eight years, following the initial test for TMAO. However, TMAO levels were higher in those with diabetes, patients with metabolic syndrome and those with declining kidney functioning. Another study examined over 800 people between the age of 33 and 55 and found blood TMAO levels were not associated with clogged arteries, insulin resistance (this comes before type 2 diabetes) and inflammatory markers or negative changes in blood lipids suggesting TMAO levels might not contribute significantly to the progression of clogged arteries. However, this study shows TMAO levels were significantly lower than in previous research, showing an association between TMAO and heart disease.

TMAO is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In those with type 2 diabetes, higher TMAO levels are associated with greater risk for death, heart attack, heart failure and unstable angina (chest pain). Also, higher levels of circulating TMAO are associated with higher risk of death in those with chronic kidney disease and greater risk of certain cancers. Yet, there are several confounding factors. Fish is the primary culprit for higher acute circulating TMAO levels, yet fish-based diets are associated with reduced risk for heart disease. Also, levels of TMAO are dependent upon disease state and the makeup of gut bacteria. Therefore, at this time it isn’t entirely clear which came first – does TMAO cause disease or does TMAO increase due to disease?

The Bottom Line

The story on TMAO isn’t crystal clear, so there’s no reason to avoid fish, meat and eggs in an effort to decrease TMAO levels. All three of these foods are good sources of several nutrients important for health. Though processed red meats are linked to higher risk of colorectal and stomach cancers, when cooked appropriately (lower, moist heat for example) red meat can fit into a healthy diet and deliver important nutrients including iron, zinc and vitamin B12. Eggs are an economical source of protein and contain many nutrients and compounds that contribute to health including two antioxidants important for eyesight.

Though there is no reason to completely avoid these foods, you can alter your diet to help diversify gut bacteria and also increase the amount of good versus bad bacteria. Probiotic rich foods such as yogurt and kefir with live and active cultures, miso soup, tempeh and other fermented foods contain good bacteria. Fiber-rich plant foods (fruits, vegetables, legumes) are important food sources for bacteria to thrive in your body.

Disclosure: this post was sponsored by USFRA. All views are my own and backed by research.

References
Koeth RA, Wang Z, Levison BS et al. Intestinal microbiota metabolism of l-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis. Nat Med 2013 Apr 7.

Cho CE, Caudill MA. Trimethylamine-N-Oxide: Friend, Foe, or Simply Caught in the Cross-Fire? Trends Endocrinol Metab 2016 Nov 4. [Epub ahead of print]

Cho CE, Taesuwan S, Malsheva OV, Bender E, Tulchinsky NF, Yan J, Sutter JL, Caudill MA. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) response to animal source foods varies among healthy young men and is influenced by their gut microbiota composition: A randomized controlled trial. Mol Nutr Food Res 2016 Jul 5.

Carnitine. Health Professional Fact Sheet, NIH. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Carnitine-HealthProfessional/

Mueller DM, Allenspach M, Othman A, Saely CH, Muendlein A, Vonbank A, Drexel H, von Eckardstein A. Plasma levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide are confounded by impaired kidney function and poor metabolic control.Atherosclerosis 2015;243(2):638-44.

Meyer KA, Benton TZ, Bennett BJ, Jacobs DR Jr., Lloyd-Jones DM, Gross MD, Carr JJ, Gordon-Larsen P, Zeisel SH. Microbiota-Dependent Metabolite Trimethylamine N-Oxide and Coronary Artery Calcium in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA). J Am Heart Assoc. 2016 Oct 21;5(10). pii: e003970.

What You Need to Know about Pork

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If visions of mistreated animals injected with a continuous supply of hormones and antibiotics leave you feeling confused and terrified about your food choices—this post is for you. I’m cutting through many myths about how pork is produced, so you can rest assured you are making the right choices. For this post I interviewed Wanda Patsche, a pig farmer from Minnesota.

Aren’t big farms owned by big agriculture companies?
Wanda: Family farmers own 97% of pig farms. Some farms are big some are small.

What are the greatest misperceptions consumers have about pigs?
Wanda: Many people think modern farms are less humane compared to small farms; niche farms, pasture raised. Actually, the opposite is true. With modern farms barns are designed so you can handle the pigs better; pigs have a social hierarchy where they fight with each other. Modern farms are specifically created to easily control this fighting by having pigs in individual pens. This means less stress for the pigs, plus the buildings are temperature controlled with fresh air. Pigs are given clean water and clean feed. The barns are pressure washed and sanitized between groups of pigs (when pigs move out and prior to new pigs coming in). Plus, pig farmers work closely with their veterinarians. Farms that have more pigs mean the famers continually grind feed because they have more mouths to feed. Continually grinding feed means the pigs get fresh feed. Their diets are designed for health and growth.

What you need to know about porkIs hormone-free pork better?
Wanda: No pigs are given hormones. Farmers are not allowed to give pigs hormones. Therefore, any pork labeled “hormone-free” has been given this label to try and make customers think it is better than other pork. However, there is no difference, all pork is free from added hormones.

Are there any antibiotics in my pork?
Wanda: Antibiotic-free is another labeling term to try to persuade customers to choose chose a specific pork product. All meat is free of antibiotics. If a pig is given an antibiotic, all traces of the antibiotic must leave the body—called the withdrawal period—before the pig is sent to off for pork production.

What do you think is driving these perceptions?
Wanda: In the U.S., less than 2% of people are farmers. Many people don’t know farmers, and they are 2 – 4 generations removed from farmers. If you’ve never been to a farm or know people who farm it is easier to believe the myths that circulate on the internet.

Tell us a little more about advances in pork production and the safeguards in place to ensure pork is safe.
Wanda: Forty years ago, pigs were all outside. They had clean air but many hazards including sunburn and the greater likelihood of getting worms (and therefore the vets would have to treat them with medicine for worms). Now, with the introduction of indoor facilities and individual pins, pigs are less stressed which keeps them healthier. Stress = greater likelihood of sickness.

In addition, antibiotics are used less, and there is a comprehensive vaccination program in place to keep pigs healthy. On farms that do not use antibiotics to treat animals when sick, the animals must be pulled away from the other pigs to prevent the illness from spreading.

Animal scientists are currently conducting studies examining ways to keep animals healthy including the use of essential oils, probiotics, and enzymes. Healthier pigs mean even fewer antibiotics are used.

Antibiotics are the last resort and only used when necessary.

Pigs are grouped together based on age. This is helpful as immune system functioning differs by age. This is just another step to keep pigs as healthy as possible.

Aren’t farms more concerned about quantity vs. quality?
Wanda: No. Every day I wake up and think, “what can I do to ensure my pigs are as healthy as possible?” Pig farmers get more money for higher quality meat. So, every pig farmer has an added incentive to produce healthy, high quality pigs. Lower quality pork goes to a secondary market for ground pork, pepperoni and similar process products. Farmers get considerably less money for lower quality pork.

Are there any concerns that consumers should have about pork?
Wanda: The biggest concern for consumers is how pork is handled and cooked. According to the USDA pork should be cooked to 145°F internally. Ground pork should be cooked to 160°F. It can be pink in the middle as long as these internal temperatures are reached.

What are the best cuts of pork?
Wanda: pork is 16% leaner than it was 20 years ago due to the way animals are fed and genetics. Pork tenderloin is just as lean as chicken breast. An easy way to remember this: loin = lean.

This post was sponsored by USFRA, all views are mine and Wanda’s.

 

The Truth about Cage-free, Free-range, No Antibiotics, Humanely Raised

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Nutrition claims are confusing. How do you know if you should pay more for a carton of eggs or package of meat based on a claim on the package? Is it legit, or made up by a marketing team to make their food stand out from competitive products on grocery store shelves? This post will help you sort through the confusion on common food claims including cage-free, free-range, antibiotic-free and differences in egg quality scores so you can choose which option is best for you.


free-range, cage-free eggs

Eggs: Cage-Free, Free-Range & AA, A and B Quality

Cage-free (eggs) – “cage-free” refers to the environment the hens (hens lay eggs) live in. Cage-free hens are housed in an environment allowing unlimited access to food, water and freedom to roam. There is no known nutrition difference in eggs produced by hens that are cage-free versus those that are not cage-free1.

AA quality eggs – the shells must be “clean, unbroken and practically normal.” Also, the white must be clear and reasonably firm, with a clear distinction between white and yolk. The yolk must be free from apparent defects. The air cell—the part of the egg that separates the inner shell membrane from the outer shell membrane—for AA quality eggs must not exceed 1/8 inch2.

A quality eggs – the only difference between AA and A quality eggs is the air cell. The air cell for A quality eggs must not exceed 3/16 of an inch2.

B quality eggs – the shells must be unbroken, but may be abnormal or have slightly stained areas. Shells with prominent stains or dirt are not permitted. The egg white can be weak and watery, while the yoke may be dark and large and flattened. Small blood or meat spots may be present2.

Meat and Dairy Claims

Pasture-raised, free-range, free-roaming – the animals have continuous, unrestricted access to pasture (land covered with grass and other plants) throughout their lives. Cattle and sheep must not be confined to a feedlot. Pigs must have continuous access to pasture for at least 80% of their life. You might see “free-range – never confined to feedlot,” on your meat3.

Antibiotic-free or No Antibiotics – all meat, milk and other dairy products are free from antibiotics. Therefore, a package of meat that says “antibiotic-free” is no different from the one next to it that does not carry this claim. When an animal is on antibiotics, their milk is not sold, and they cannot be slaughtered for meat. Instead, the farmer must wait until all traces of medication have cleared the animal’s body before the cow can be milked or the animal can be sent for slaughter. For more on this topic as related to milk, click here.

Humanely raised – this term makes me think of a farmer who knows each animal by name; pets and cares for them daily while attending to their needs. However, this isn’t the case. “Humanely raised” is a term made up by food companies. There is no formal definition and therefore, it is up to the food company to decide what they consider humanely raised. Ignore it. 

Naturally raised – there is no official definition for naturally raised. Therefore, this claim could mean anything. Ignore it.

Grass-fed – there is no universally accepted, standardized definition for the term grass-fed. All cows, sheep and goats eat grass for most of their lives. However, some of these animals are grain-finished—they spend several months on a grain-based diet until they reach their ideal weight. At this time, their diet consists of grains, grass, vitamin and mineral mixes, citrus pulp and other feed as determined by an animal nutritionist based on their dietary needs. Other animals are grass-finished, they consume grass their entire life, and may be given vitamin and mineral mixes as needed. There are no nutrition differences between grain-finished and grass-finished meat.

Food is a very competitive business. Consumers may choose a product based on a variety of factors including great packaging, superior taste and good nutrition value. Food claims may sway your decision; however, be sure you’re getting what you are paying for. Look for claims that are backed by a standardized definition, versus those with no definition.

This post was sponsored by USFRA, all views are my own.

References

  1. Questions and Answers About Shell Eggs. USDA Agricultural Marketing Service.
  1. United States Standards, Grades and Weight Classes for Shell Eggs AMS 56. USDA.
  1. Federal Register. Vol. 67, No. 250. United States Standards for Livestock and Meat Marketing Claims. 67 FR 79552. Federal Department of Agriculture.

Get Cultured: Probiotics can Help You Lose Weight & Stay Healthy

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From Greek to Icelandic Skyr, yogurt is everywhere. Choose the right kind, one packed with probiotics and protein, and yogurt can help you trim your waistline while supporting overall health at the same time.

In this article, I’m covering:
• How gut bacteria influence your weight and health
• Probiotic-rich foods for health & healthy weight

Your Gut Bacteria Influence Your Weight & Health

There is an entire community of over one trillion microbes (bacteria) taking up valuable real estate in your gut. Some are good, some are bad and the rest are neutral. The good guys are key players for digestive and immune functioning (remember about 70% of your immune system is located in your gut). They have many other functions as well:
bacteria, probiotics and body weight

Research studies show lean and obese people have a different makeup of bacteria in their gut. In addition, lean individuals have a greater diversity of bacteria in their gut. Diversity is important –  think of bacteria like a team of people each one has a different job and they work better together than in isolation.

If an obese person loses weight their overall makeup of bacteria more closely resemble’s a lean person’s gut. Greater weight loss = even greater the changes in gut bacteria. Also, changing bacteria seems to influence weight, though scientists know less about the influence of altering gut bacteria and changing body weight. Lean mice transplanted with bacteria from obese mice experienced a 60% increase in body fat without changing their food intake (calories in) or physical activity (calories out). The authors of this study believe the change in gut bacteria resulted in an increased absorption of some carbohydrates, increase in the production of fat and increase in fat storage. Authors from another study, this one examining human twins, also found a connection between types of bacteria in the gut and body weight, particularly visceral fat – deep layers of fat that coat the organs and are tied to higher risk of certain chronic diseases such as heart disease. The authors of this study believe, like the study in mice, obese individuals may be absorbing more calories from the food they eat.

Probiotic-Rich Foods for Health & Healthy Weight

How did they swap out bacteria in studies? Poop transplants. This isn’t exactly something you should try at home. But there’s another, easier way to keep your gut healthy. Get cultured by picking up foods that contain healthy bacteria including yogurt (with live and active cultures), kefir (drinkable yogurt, it’s so good!), miso soup, homemade sauerkraut, and tempeh (made from soy, this has a nutty taste). There might be something special about yogurt – a meta-analysis (a study that combined the results of other studies) looked at dairy intake and weight changes over time. They found greater yogurt intake was associated with lower body weight. Plus the protein in Greek yogurt seems to help people feel full so they eat less at their next meal. Also, feed the bacteria by eating plenty of fruits, vegetables and whole grains, particularly onions, greens, beans, legumes, berries and bananas, to get enough prebiotics (food) to support their growth.

 

References
Benno Y. Mitsuoka T. Development of intestinal microflora in human and animals. Bifidobacteria Microflora 1986; 5:13-25.

Quigley EMM, Quera R. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: Roles of Antibiotics, Prebiotics, and Probiotics. Gastroenterology 2006;130:S78-S90.

O’Hara AM, Shanahan F. The gut flora as a forgotten organ. EMBO Rep 2006;7:688-93.

Ramakrishna B. The normal bacterial flora of the human intestine and its regulation. J Clin Gastroenterology 2007;41:S2-S6.

Douglas LC, Sanders ME. Probiotics and prebiotics in dietetics practice. J Am Diet Assoc 2008;108:510-521.

Million M, Maraninchi M, Henry M et al. Obesity-associated gut microbiota is enriched in Lactobacillus reuteri and depleted in Bifidobacterium animalis and Methanobrevibacter smithii. Int J Obesity 2012;36:817-825.

Hempel S, Newberry SJ, Maher AR, Wang Z et al. Probiotics for the Prevention and Treatment of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA 2012;307(18):1959-1969.

An Introduction to Probiotics. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. National Institutes of Health. http://nccam.nih.gov/health/probiotics/

Marik PE. Colonic flora, probiotics, obesity and diabetes. Front Endocrinol 2012;3:87.

Bäckhed F, Ding H, Wang T, Hooper LV, Koh GY, Nagy A, Semenkovich CF, Gordon JI. The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:15718-23.

Ley RE, Turnbaugh PJ, Klein S, Gordon JI. Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature 2006;444(7122):1022-3.

Kalliomäki M, Collado MC, Salminen S, Isolauri E. Early differences in fecal microbiota composition in children may predict overweight. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87(3):534-8.

Yang YX, He M, Hu G, Wei J, Pages P, Yang XH, Bourdu-Naturel S. Effect of a fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173010 on Chinese constipated women. World J Gastroenterol 2008;14(40):6237-43.

Yaeshima T et al. Effect of yogurt containing Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on the intestinal environment, fecal characteristics and defecation frequency: a comparison with standard yogurt. Bioscience Microflora 1997;16:73-77.

Hempel S et al. Probiotics for the Prevention and Treatment of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea
A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA 2012;307;1959-1969.

Semova I, Carten JD, Stombaugh J et al. Microbiota Regulate Intestinal Absorption and Metabolism of Fatty Acids in the Zebrafish. Cell Host & Microbe 2012;12:277.

Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G, Schwedhelm C, Kalle-Uhlmann T, Missbach B, Knuppel S, Boeing H. Consumption of Dairy Products in Relation to Changes in Anthropometric Variables in Adult Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies. PLoS One 2016; 11(6): e0157461.

Focusing on Fewer Ingredients in Food is Pointless

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Zoning in on the number of ingredients in packaged foods is one of the stupidest consumer driven trends to date. Fueled by the unsubstantiated fear of anything not immediately recognizable or easy to pronounce, companies are turning to “fewer ingredients” to make their food stand out on over-crowded store shelves. Short, recognizable ingredient lists are leading packaged food trends in 2016 yet the number of ingredients or your ability to pronounce an ingredient has absolutely nothing to do with the nutrition value of the food and therefore shouldn’t guide your buying decisions.

The # of Ingredients Has Nothing to do with Nutrition Value

Shorter ingredient lists do not mean a food or beverage is better for you. Companies that make chips, ice cream and other dessert items are among the fiercest competitors for simplifying ingredient lists. According to an article in the Huffington Post, Hershey Co. improved their classic chocolate syrup by cutting the list to 5 simple ingredients. The new version took food scientists a year and a half to make with recognizable ingredients. The challenge? Making a syrup that also tastes good. The new version with cane sugar and organic invert cane syrup instead of high fructose corn syrup will cost you 1 more gram of sugar than the original version. How does this make it nutritionally superior to the old version?

Here’s another example. Let’s say you are in the grocery store debating between protein choices for dinner. Do you pick up the omega-3 and protein-packed (23 grams for 190 calories) salmon or beef franks (15 grams protein for 190 calories and 3x the saturated fat). I hope you choose the salmon if you are choosing based on nutrition value.

Simple Ingredients

I found many similar examples in the grocery store including potato chips with just a few ingredients compared to whole grain, higher fiber crackers with three times the ingredients and Häagen-Dazs ice cream with five ingredients, 250 calories and almost 5 grams of sugar per ½ cup compared to Giant brand ice cream with more than twice the number of ingredients, 160 calories and less than 3 grams of sugar per ½ cup. If you are choosing your dessert not based on taste but instead based on the nutritionally superior option (because that’s why people are focusing on the total number of ingredients right?), you’ll pick up the Giant brand with more ingredients.

Just Because You Don’t Recognize it and Can’t Pronounce it Doesn’t Mean it is Bad

Head over to Cooking Light or any other well-recognized cooking magazine and I’m willing to bet you’ll find ingredients that you don’t recognize and can’t pronounce. I live in the world of food, nutrition and supplements and restaurant menus often stump me while the sheer number of unfamiliar spices in Penzeys Spices satisfies my creative desire for something new and unique. Just because an ingredient is unfamiliar to you does not automatically make it bad. After all you’re probably not a food scientist entrenched in the world of food development and food safety.

Some misunderstood ingredients are emulsifiers – they help ingredients stay together in a mixture vs. separating (for example, salad dressings often contain emulsifiers including lecithin), others add nutrition value, help products retain their color, prolong shelf life or keep the product safe. Pyridoxine hydrochloride sounds scary right? It’s a vitamin B6. Cyanocobalamin? That’s vitamin B12. Beta-glucan? Oat and barley beta-glucan are soluble fibers sometimes added to food to increase the fiber content. They also help you feel more full (satiated) and are fantastic for your immune system. Lupin kernel fiber – lupin is a legume. In other words, it’s good for you. All substances allowed in food in the U.S. are GRAS – Generally Recognized as Safe by the Food and Drug Administration.

Even though manufacturers are scurrying to chop down their ingredient lists to meet this silly consumer demand, focusing on the number of ingredients in a food isn’t worth your time or attention span. If you don’t order food in a restaurant based on the number of ingredients used in the recipe why would you choose foods in the grocery store based on the total number of ingredients? In addition, don’t be scared of any ingredient with a sprinkling of scientific reasoning behind its use.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3 Major Myths About Organic & Conventional Food

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organic blueberries, raspberries and blackberries

 

There is very little that distinguishes organic food from conventional food. In an attempt to follow the pervasive “good food vs. bad food” storyline, many people have grossly exaggerated the differences between organic and conventional foods leaving readers with few facts grounded in scientific evidence. Don’t let the top three misperceptions about organic and conventional food influence your food choices.

This post covers:

  • Pesticide residues on food and human safety
  • Organic foods, conventional foods and the environment
  • Nutrition differences between organic and conventional foods

This post does not cover worker safety or in-depth environmental issues.

#1 Myth: Organic Foods are Grown Without Pesticides

Both organic and conventional crops are sprayed with pesticides, compounds that control a variety of pests (1, 2). In fact there is a long list of substances, including pesticides, allowed for use on organic farms. The differentiating factor between organic and conventional farming is the source of pesticides. Organic farmers primarily use naturally occurring pesticides in addition to a small number of man-made pesticides while conventional farmers primarily use man-made pesticides.

In some instances there is a man-made form of a compound identical to the one found in nature. For instance, methyl bromide, a fumigant gas used to kill fungi, nematodes and weeds, is found in nature and also made in a lab. Both conventional and organic farmers can use methyl bromide on strawberry plants. Bacillus thuringienis, the most commonly used organic pesticide, is both naturally occurring and man-made; incorporated into some genetically engineered foods. One is natural, one is man-made yet there is no detectable difference between the two (3).

#2 Myth: Organic Foods are Safer for Human Consumption and Better for the Environment

Compounds found in nature are not automatically safe and non-toxic, or safer than man-made compounds (4, 5). Both naturally occurring compounds and man-made chemicals are completely harmless, extremely toxic at a certain dose, or fall somewhere in between these two extremes. You’ve probably heard the saying “the dose makes the poison.” Many compounds we consume every day, from vitamin A to water, can be lethal if consumed in extremely high doses. The same is true for pesticides. Dose and length of exposure determine toxicity. Our government has several safeguards in place for the use of pesticides. First, the EPA evaluates all pesticides. Prior to use in the United States pesticides must be free from unreasonable risk to human health or the environment. Regardless of the type of pesticide used, whether organic or man-made, the Environmental Protection Agency limits the amount of pesticide residues allowed in food and water. The USDA Pesticide Data Program routinely monitors pesticide residues in foods and has found pesticide residues, whether organic or conventional, “pose no safety concern” (8, 9).

Organic pesticides are also not necessarily better for the environment, though they are considered safe in the amounts used (just like man-made pesticides). As an example, rotenone, a naturally occurring compound used in fisheries and can be fatal if inhaled (staff spraying this pesticide must be protected from risk of inhalation) and kills fish within an hour of spraying. Waters treated with rotenone are closed for public swimming for several months after treatment allowing dead fish time to decompose. When used according to instructions, rotenone poses “no overall risk to human health” or the environment (6). In addition, a study in soybeans found organic pesticides did not control aphids (plant lice) as effectively as man-made pesticides and they were more detrimental to the environment (partly due to the amount that needed to be used) (7).

There are environmental effects, both good and bad, from conventional and organic farming. Organic farming has advanced nonchemical methods of pest control and in some instances improved soil quality while decreasing soil erosion. However, organic farming also produces a lower yield, which means more environmental resources are used to produce the same total amount of food.

Can’t we farm without any pesticides?

Sure. Some conventional and organic farms do not use pesticides. A conventional farm may choose not to get organic certification, even if they don’t use any pesticides, because of the cost of certification. Keep in mind pesticides help get rid of pests and, can therefore help make food safer by the decreasing the likelihood of pathogens such as E. coli through use of anti-microbial compounds (10, 11).

What about the “Dirty Dozen”, Should I Steer Clear of the Foods that have the Most Pesticide Residues?

Some groups rank foods based on total pesticide residues – foods that are the “most contaminated.” Though some foods may have more pesticide residues on them than others, a study from the University of California Davis found all 12 commodities identified in the Dirty Dozen contained pesticide residues well below the established safe level (called the chronic reference doses or RfDs for short). In fact, only one pesticide residue, found on bell peppers, exceeded 1% of the RfD, coming in at 2%. So the largest total “dose” of a pesticide residue found was still 50 times lower than the established safe dose. Three quarters of the pesticides detected were at levels 1,000 times below the RfD. Therefore, the 12 foods listed on the Dirty Dozen “most contaminated” foods pose “negligible risks” for consumers. Choosing organic over conventional to avoid the fruits and vegetables on the Dirty Dozen will not completely negate your exposure to pesticides (because some organic produce has pesticide residues as well) or lower your risk from exposure to pesticides because your risk is negligible to begin with (12). Given the low amount of pesticide residues found on conventional and organic produce, there’s little appreciable difference in total pesticide exposure, whether you eat conventional or organic.

Though some studies, as well as pesticide monitoring programs have found conventional produce contains significantly more total pesticide residues then organic produce, significantly more than a miniscule amount is still a miniscule amount. Here’s an analogy: if I give you one penny and give your friend 2 pennies, your friend has 100% more money than you do – that’s a statistically significant difference. However, the financial impact of two pennies vs. one penny is meaningless.

If you want to add up your total exposure, check out the Alliance for Food and Farming developed a pesticide calculator and research behind the calculator:

http://safefruitsandveggies.com/pesticide-calculator

#3 Myth: Organic Food is More Nutritious

Several studies have examined nutrient differences between organic and conventionally produced foods. Most of this research shows no appreciable difference in vitamin or mineral content or health effects. What about plant compounds including antioxidants? In some cases organic farming may improve antioxidant content while in others man-made pesticides actually increase concentrations of certain beneficial plant-based compounds (13, 14).

In a world where we have many food choices and an overabundance of incorrect nutrition information, it’s easy to grasp onto a concept that isn’t evidence-based. Don’t get caught up in the hype and instead look for the scientific details. When it comes to organic and conventional foods, you’re not stuck choosing sides but instead can enjoy both – there is no appreciable difference in pesticide residues or nutrition content between the two.

Disclosure: I am an advisor for USFRA. All opinions expressed are my own after taking my typical nosedive into the scientific literature and government regulations on this subject.

References

1 Types of pesticide ingredients. US Environmental Protection Agency.
https://www.epa.gov/ingredients-used-pesticide-products/types-pesticide-ingredients

2 Food and Pesticides. US Environmental Protection Agency
https://www.epa.gov/safepestcontrol/food-and-pesticides

3 Koch MS, Ward JM, Levine SL, Baum JA, Vicini JL, Hammond BG. The food and environmental safety of Bt crops. Front Plant Sci 2015; 6: 283.

4 Pesticides – What’s my risk? National Pesticide Information Center.

5 Contaminants Found in Groundwater. The USGS Water Science School. http://water.usgs.gov/edu/groundwater-contaminants.html

6 Lake and stream rehabilitation: rotenone use and health risks. Washington department of fish and wildlife. http://wdfw.wa.gov/licensing/sepa/2016/16041_2002_fseis.pdf

7 Bahlai CA, Xue Y, McCreary CM, Schaafsma AW, Hallett RH. Choosing Organic Pesticides over Synthetic Pesticides May Not Effectively Mitigate Environmental Risk in Soybeans. PLoS One 2010; 5(6): e11250.

8 What Consumers Should Know. 2014 Pesticide Data Program Annual Summary. United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ams.usda.gov/sites/default/files/media/PDP%202014%20Annual%20Summary%20Consumers.pdf

9 Pesticide Program Residue Monitoring. US. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/Pesticides/ucm2006797.htm

10 Mukheriee A, Speh D, Dyck E, Diez-Gonzalez F. Preharvest evaluation of coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in organic and conventional produce grown by Minnesota farmers. J Food Prot 2004;67(5):894-900.

11 Johannessen GS, Bengtsson GB, Heier BT, Bredholt S, Wasteson Y, Rørvik LM. Potential uptake of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from organic manure into crisphead lettuce. Appl Environ Microbiol 2005;71(5):2221-5.

12 Winter CK, Katz JM. Dietary Exposure to Pesticide Residues from Commodities Alleged to Contain the Highest Contamination Levels. J Toxicol 2011; 589674.

13 Dangour AD, Lock K, Hayter A, Aikenhead A, Allen E, Uauy R. Nutrition-related health effects of organic foods: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 92(1):203-210.

14 Rosen J. A Review of the Nutrition Claims Made by Proponents of Organic Food, Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 2010;9(3): 270-277.

Yikes! Are there Antibiotics or Hormones in Your Milk & Dairy Foods?

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milk

Are antibiotics and hormones used in dairy cows contributing to the obesity epidemic, early puberty and antibiotic resistance? Before going down that road, we have to first we have to first ask if there are any antibiotics or hormones in milk and dairy products.

In this blog post I will cover:

  • Why are antibiotics given to cows?
  • Antibiotics are not in milk, here’s why.
  • Why are growth hormones given to cows? Are there any hormones in my milk and dairy food?
  • What are the cows Eating?

Why are Antibiotics given to Cows?

Antibiotics are used on farms to treat animals who are sick just like you would give an antibiotic to your child if he or she gets sick or take one yourself. There is no reason for dairy farmers to give antibiotics to cows who are not sick. Doing so costs additional money,  serves no clear purpose and arbitrarily giving animals antibiotics could contribute to antibiotic resistance. Now imagine you are a farmer and your life depends on the health of your cows – would you want to run the risk of antibiotic resistance and your cows getting sick with fewer treatment options?

Some antibiotics are also used for animal growth. The FDA is phasing out this practice so medically important antimicrobial drugs (antibiotics) will no longer be allowed to enhance growth or feed efficiency. In the future antibiotics will only be allowed to treat, control or prevent disease and of course require a prescription from a licensed veterinarian. Regardless of whether or not the antibiotic is used for growth or treatment of disease, no traces of antibiotic residues are allowed in milk or dairy products.

Antibiotics are Not in Milk, Here’s Why.

Any cow that gets an antibiotic is milked separately from the rest of the herd and the milk is thrown out. That milk will never be sold or consumed. All antibiotics have a different period of time before all traces of the medication leaves the body (whether we are talking about a cow or a human). Once this period is up and the cow is completely healthy again, the farmer tests her milk. Milk cannot be sold until it is completely clear of all drug residues. Whether organic or conventional, all milk is tested several times before making it to market. It is tested on the farm and at the milk processing plant. Any milk that tests positive for any medication residue, including antibiotics, is thrown out (1).

According to national Milk Drug Residue Data Base compiled for the years 2013 to 2014, 0% of milk tested positive for drug residues. In 2015, the FDA’s Center of Veterinary Medicine surveyed 1,918 raw milk samples (before pasteurization) from across the country. Samples were tested for residues of 31 drugs including the antibiotics, NSAIDs (ibuprofen etc.) and an antihistamine. They found 99% of sampled milk was free of any drug residues. Keep in mind the 1% of milk with residues must be thrown out – it cannot be sold (1, 2).

Cheese and yogurt are made from milk and therefore, there are no antibiotics in your cheese or yogurt either.

If you want to learn more about what farmers are doing about antibiotic resistance, Minnesota Farmer Wanda Patsche wrote an excellent blog on this topic.

Growth Hormones in Dairy Cows

Growth hormones are approved for use in dairy cows to improve milk production. Greater milk production means fewer environmental resources used to raise cows for milk. Bovine somatotropin (bST; also called bovine growth hormone or rBGH) is perhaps the most well recognized growth hormone used on dairy farms. bST is “a protein hormone produced in the pituitary gland of animals, including humans, and is essential for normal growth, development, and health maintenance.” Very little bST is used in dairy cows and there is no test that can distinguish between cows treated with bST and naturally occurring bST (3). Humans do not have receptors for bST and therefore it is passed through your body intact without being absorbed (4). As a result, there are no known side effects or health issues associated with consuming dairy from cows treated with bST. IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor 1) concentrations are slightly higher in cows treated with bST. However, the human body synthesizes IGF-I and drinking 1.5 L of milk is equivalent to an estimated 0.09% of the IGF-I produced by adults each day (5, 6, 7, 8).

USDA organic dairy products are “produced without antibiotics fed or administered to the animal at any point in its life” (9). There are no meaningful nutrition differences between organic and conventional dairy products. I covered that topic in this post.

What are the Cows Eating?

Cows’ diets also vary depending on many of the same factors that influence your food choices. However, unlike humans, all cows have the benefit of seeing a nutrition expert (like dietitians, animal nutrition experts are specialists). Many consumers also have questions about how cows are fed. Cows are fed nutritious diet to ensure health of cow and nutrition of milk. Typical feed mixtures may include haylage (grass with a higher water content), corn silage, sugar beet pulp and a protein mineral mix.

Rest assured, your dairy products are safe. In fact, the dairy product that says it is made with cows not treated with antibiotics is the exact same as the one from a cow that may have been treated with antibiotics. Both contain no antibiotic residues. Growth hormones used in dairy also pose no known threat to human health. The human body does not even recognize the main hormone used in cows. So, regardless of what milk, yogurt, or cheese you choose, all have been produced and extensively tested to ensure they are safe for human consumption.

This post was written as part of my ongoing sponsored partnership with U.S. Farmers & Ranchers Alliance. All opinions expressed are my own and per the usual, took me hours to research and double check my facts.References (if not cited via a hyperlink in the text of this post)

References

1 Questions and Answers: 2012 Milk Drug Residue Sampling Survey. FDA.

2 NATIONAL MILK DRUG RESIDUE DATA BASE FISCAL YEAR 2014 ANNUAL REPORT October 1, 2013 – September 30, 2014 http://www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation/milk/ucm434757.pdf

3 Bovine Somatotropin (BST) http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/SafetyHealth/ProductSafetyInformation/ucm055435.htm

4 Bovine Somatotropin. National Institutes of Health, Technology Assessment Conference Statement. December 5-7, 1990. https://consensus.nih.gov/1990/1990BovineSomatotropinta007html.htm

5 Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). 1998. Toxicological evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food; Summary and conclusions. 50th report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

6 Collier RJ, Bauman DE. Update on human health concerns of recombinant bovine somatotropin use in dairy cows. J Animal Sci 2013; 92(4): 1800 – 1807. https://www.animalsciencepublications.org/publications/jas/articles/92/4/1800

7 Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone. http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancercauses/othercarcinogens/athome/recombinant-bovine-growth-hormone                  

8 Report on the Food and Drug Administration’s Review of the Safety of Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/animalveterinary/safetyhealth/productsafetyinformation/ucm130321.htm

9 Stacy Sneeringer, James MacDonald, Nigel Key, William McBride, and Ken Mathews. Economics of Antibiotic Use in U.S. Livestock Production, ERR-200, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, November 2015. http://www.ers.usda.gov/media/1950577/err200.pdf

 

 

Full Fat or Low Fat Dairy?

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If you are totally against low-fat dairy, it’s time to take a closer look at the research. After listening to this dairy debate and watching the finger pointing, I started searching through the literature for an answer to this question “does dairy fat increase LDL cholesterol and risk for cardiovascular disease?” Then I came to my senses. No one eats dairy fat. Unless you’re a food scientist, you aren’t separating the fat from milk or full-fat yogurt and eating it or adding it as an ingredient to your recipes. However, we do eat cheese and yogurt and drink milk. The array of compounds in each of these foods influences how they affect your cholesterol and risk for heart disease. So, I revised the question to: “how does full fat cheese, yogurt and milk impact cholesterol and risk for heart disease?”

Here’s what I’ll cover in this article:

  • Why people are up in arms about saturated fat – saying it is either good or bad;
  • How does full fat cheese, yogurt and milk impact cholesterol;
  • What should you do with this information?

Dairy Fat isn’t the Only Factor

The research on dairy generally follows the research on saturated fat: the replacement strategy matters. For instance, it isn’t a good idea to take cheese out of your diet and replace it with a highly refined carbohydrate (not a good move for blood fats). Butter isn’t better than liquid oil. Butter raises LDL cholesterol. Some research suggests dairy fat might raise the large, less artery clogging LDL cholesterol compared to small dense LDL. However, “less artery clogging” does not mean “not artery clogging” and this area of the science needs more work before we can draw firm conclusions. Also, there are a few differences based on the type of food (milk, cheese, yogurt, butter); aged cheese reigns.

dairy and cheddar cheese

-> Aged cheese does not raise LDL as much as butter (accounting for total fat in each). In fact, several studies show aged cheese appears to have a “relatively minor” impact on LDL cholesterol or no impact at all. This could be due to the calcium content, which leads to the excretion of some fat or, fermentation may have an effect. Aged cheese stands out in the research.

-> Yogurt appears to have less of a cholesterol raising effect than expected. However this research is inconsistent possibly due to differences in the type of bacteria in the yogurt (aka probiotics). I recommend choosing yogurt with “live and active cultures.”

– > Milk – when consuming the same amount of fat from whole milk or butter, both raise LDL to the same extent. Milk contributes substantially less total fat per amount consumed compared to full fat yogurt and butter. Cross-sectional studies suggest milk consumption doesn’t raise coronary artery disease risk, however, this may reflect lower total fat intake from milk compared to butter.

-> Cottage cheese –  this incredible food is oftentimes forgotten yet an excellent addition to your diet. I couldn’t find any studies on cottage cheese, however, the highest fat cottage cheese I could find  (4% milk fat) contained 5 g total fat per serving so we can expect the impact cottage cheese may have a lower impact compared to whole milk.

What Should You Do with this Information?

If your LDL is high, choose skim, 1% or low fat milk. Opt for a good quality yogurt with naturally occurring probiotics. As far as cheese goes – I’d take out all of the other offending foods and work on other aspects of heart health before ditching the cheese (unless your LDL is very high) and cottage cheese. However, always follow the dietary advice of your registered dietitian since there are many variables that should be taken into consideration.

What about the trans fats in dairy? They are good for you right? No. In large amounts, the trans fats in dairy have the same impact as those found in partially hydrogenated oil (not good for cholesterol, cardiovascular disease risk etc.). However, we don’t eat dairy trans fats in significant quantities (they make up very tiny amounts of dairy fat and beef fat).

Take Home Points

In general, dairy foods help lower blood pressure plus there is emerging evidence about the positive role dairy foods may play in metabolic syndrome. What about dairy fat? Consider the whole food and your diet overall so you can make the right choices based on your personal risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Also, keep in mind there are many factors that influence cardiovascular disease pathology, some of which are unrelated to cholesterol.

References

Tholstrup T, Hoy CE, Andersen LN, Christensen RD, Sandstrom B. Does fat in milk, butter and cheese affect blood lipids and cholesterol differently? J Am Coll Nutr 2004;23:169–76.

Hjerpsted J, Leedo E, Tholstrup T. Cheese intake in large amounts lowers LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared with butter intake of equal fat content. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;94:1479–84.

Biong AS, Muller H, Seljeflot I, Veierod MB, Pedersen JI. A comparison of the effects of cheese and butter on serum lipids, haemostatic variables and homocysteine. Br J Nutr 2004;92:791–7.

Nestel P. Effects of Dairy Fats within Different Foods on Plasma Lipids. J Am Coll Clin Nutr 2008, 27(6): 735S–740S.

Thorning TK et al. Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2015.

Labonté MÈ et al. Dairy product consumption has no impact on biomarkers of inflammation among men and women with low-grade systemic inflammation. J Nutr 2014;144(11):1760-7.

Sjogren P et al. Milk-derived fatty acids are associated with a more favorable LDL particle size distribution in healthy men. J Nutr 2004;134(7):1729-35.

Hodson L, Skeaff CM, Chisholm WA. The effect of replacing dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat on plasma lipids in free-living young adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001; 55(10):908-15

Soerensen KV et al. Effect of dairy calcium from cheese and milk on fecal fat excretion, blood lipids, and appetite in young men. Am J Clin Nutr 2014;99(5):984-91.

Grebe A, Latz E. Cholesterol crystals and inflammation. Curr Rheumatol Rep 2013;15(3):313.