Full Fat or Low Fat Dairy?

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If you are totally against low-fat dairy, it’s time to take a closer look at the research. After listening to this dairy debate and watching the finger pointing, I started searching through the literature for an answer to this question “does dairy fat increase LDL cholesterol and risk for cardiovascular disease?” Then I came to my senses. No one eats dairy fat. Unless you’re a food scientist, you aren’t separating the fat from milk or full-fat yogurt and eating it or adding it as an ingredient to your recipes. However, we do eat cheese and yogurt and drink milk. The array of compounds in each of these foods influences how they affect your cholesterol and risk for heart disease. So, I revised the question to: “how does full fat cheese, yogurt and milk impact cholesterol and risk for heart disease?”

Here’s what I’ll cover in this article:

  • Why people are up in arms about saturated fat – saying it is either good or bad;
  • How does full fat cheese, yogurt and milk impact cholesterol;
  • What should you do with this information?

Dairy Fat isn’t the Only Factor

The research on dairy generally follows the research on saturated fat: the replacement strategy matters. For instance, it isn’t a good idea to take cheese out of your diet and replace it with a highly refined carbohydrate (not a good move for blood fats). Butter isn’t better than liquid oil. Butter raises LDL cholesterol. Some research suggests dairy fat might raise the large, less artery clogging LDL cholesterol compared to small dense LDL. However, “less artery clogging” does not mean “not artery clogging” and this area of the science needs more work before we can draw firm conclusions. Also, there are a few differences based on the type of food (milk, cheese, yogurt, butter); aged cheese reigns.

dairy and cheddar cheese

-> Aged cheese does not raise LDL as much as butter (accounting for total fat in each). In fact, several studies show aged cheese appears to have a “relatively minor” impact on LDL cholesterol or no impact at all. This could be due to the calcium content, which leads to the excretion of some fat or, fermentation may have an effect. Aged cheese stands out in the research.

-> Yogurt appears to have less of a cholesterol raising effect than expected. However this research is inconsistent possibly due to differences in the type of bacteria in the yogurt (aka probiotics). I recommend choosing yogurt with “live and active cultures.”

– > Milk – when consuming the same amount of fat from whole milk or butter, both raise LDL to the same extent. Milk contributes substantially less total fat per amount consumed compared to full fat yogurt and butter. Cross-sectional studies suggest milk consumption doesn’t raise coronary artery disease risk, however, this may reflect lower total fat intake from milk compared to butter.

-> Cottage cheese –  this incredible food is oftentimes forgotten yet an excellent addition to your diet. I couldn’t find any studies on cottage cheese, however, the highest fat cottage cheese I could find  (4% milk fat) contained 5 g total fat per serving so we can expect the impact cottage cheese may have a lower impact compared to whole milk.

What Should You Do with this Information?

If your LDL is high, choose skim, 1% or low fat milk. Opt for a good quality yogurt with naturally occurring probiotics. As far as cheese goes – I’d take out all of the other offending foods and work on other aspects of heart health before ditching the cheese (unless your LDL is very high) and cottage cheese. However, always follow the dietary advice of your registered dietitian since there are many variables that should be taken into consideration.

What about the trans fats in dairy? They are good for you right? No. In large amounts, the trans fats in dairy have the same impact as those found in partially hydrogenated oil (not good for cholesterol, cardiovascular disease risk etc.). However, we don’t eat dairy trans fats in significant quantities (they make up very tiny amounts of dairy fat and beef fat).

Take Home Points

In general, dairy foods help lower blood pressure plus there is emerging evidence about the positive role dairy foods may play in metabolic syndrome. What about dairy fat? Consider the whole food and your diet overall so you can make the right choices based on your personal risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Also, keep in mind there are many factors that influence cardiovascular disease pathology, some of which are unrelated to cholesterol.

References

Tholstrup T, Hoy CE, Andersen LN, Christensen RD, Sandstrom B. Does fat in milk, butter and cheese affect blood lipids and cholesterol differently? J Am Coll Nutr 2004;23:169–76.

Hjerpsted J, Leedo E, Tholstrup T. Cheese intake in large amounts lowers LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared with butter intake of equal fat content. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;94:1479–84.

Biong AS, Muller H, Seljeflot I, Veierod MB, Pedersen JI. A comparison of the effects of cheese and butter on serum lipids, haemostatic variables and homocysteine. Br J Nutr 2004;92:791–7.

Nestel P. Effects of Dairy Fats within Different Foods on Plasma Lipids. J Am Coll Clin Nutr 2008, 27(6): 735S–740S.

Thorning TK et al. Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2015.

Labonté MÈ et al. Dairy product consumption has no impact on biomarkers of inflammation among men and women with low-grade systemic inflammation. J Nutr 2014;144(11):1760-7.

Sjogren P et al. Milk-derived fatty acids are associated with a more favorable LDL particle size distribution in healthy men. J Nutr 2004;134(7):1729-35.

Hodson L, Skeaff CM, Chisholm WA. The effect of replacing dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat on plasma lipids in free-living young adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001; 55(10):908-15

Soerensen KV et al. Effect of dairy calcium from cheese and milk on fecal fat excretion, blood lipids, and appetite in young men. Am J Clin Nutr 2014;99(5):984-91.

Grebe A, Latz E. Cholesterol crystals and inflammation. Curr Rheumatol Rep 2013;15(3):313.

 

 

Sourdough – Safe for Gluten Sensitivity?

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There’s something special about sourdough bread. Made through a slow process that begins with simple ingredients, warm water and flour, yeast and bacteria feast on the flour’s carbohydrate, producing carbon dioxide gas and bubbles that expand the dough. Each batch may tastes a little different depending on the flour and water used as well as the environment the starter is made in. My favorite sourdough bread, the kind that is made over the course of several days, has an alluring pungent, slightly sour taste. This long fermentation process leads to more complex flavors while also creating bread that is easier for those with gluten sensitivity to digest. I shared the science behind sourdough in this segment on Fox TV:

What is Gluten?

Gluten’s stretchy fibers give dough it’s rubberband-like elasticity allowing it to stretch when pizza dough is tossed in the air like a frisbee. Gluten-rich dough traps air and water during the baking process so bread rises with delicate ease, producing light and fluffy baked goods. Without wheat (and therefore gluten, which is produced when wheat flour is mixed with water), gluten free items require a blend of flours, starches and additives yet they still can’t replicate the texture of gluten-containing baked goods.

In people with celiac disease, an autoimmune digestive disease, repeated exposure to gluten damages villi, fingerlike projections in the small intestine that help us absorb nutrients from food. Over time, a decrease in nutrient absorption can lead to anemia, osteoporosis, miscarriages and other complications. The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center website lists over 300 symptoms associated with celiac disease though anemia is the most common symptom in adults. The only available treatment is a strict gluten free diet – which helps reverse intestinal damage over time. Gluten sensitivity is not an autoimmune disease but instead a vague medical condition without a uniform definition or diagnostic test at this time. People with gluten sensitivity report various symptoms triggered by the ingestion of gluten-containing foods including abdominal pain, bloating, and constipation or diarrhea. Though gluten sensitivity is real, someone who thinks they have sensitivity may actually be reacting to something other than gluten (another protein or the starches – see below under Is it the Gluten?)

Sourdough bread

The Science behind Sourdough

Standard yeast leads to a fast fermentation process. This ramps up production speed and it is also foolproof so companies can produce batches of bread at warp speed. Sourdough bread is made slowly, over time, letting the yeast work it’s magic to deliver an array of flavors as well as bread that is easier to digest. In one study, sourdough bread made with selected sourdough lactobacilli and long-time fermentation resulted in bread with gluten levels of 12 parts per million (ppm), which qualifies for gluten-free (anything below to 20 ppm is gluten free). A long fermentation process allows bacteria and yeast adequate time to feed on proteins and starches breaking them down into more digestible parts. Yet sourdough also boasts a lower glycemic index than many other types of bread (including white bread) and therefore it doesn’t lead to a quick spike in blood sugar levels.

In 2011, a small study conducted in Italy tried giving volunteers with celiac disease a small amount of specially prepared sourdough bread. The bread was fermented until the gluten was broken down to more easily digestible parts. The subjects in the study reacted well to the sourdough, with no changes in intestinal villi and no detectable antibodies typically found when a celiac disease patient eats a gluten containing food. According to the study authors, the bread “was not toxic to patients with celiac disease.”

In another study, conducted over 60 days, baked goods made from hydrolyzed wheat flour, manufactured with sourdough lactobacilli and fungal proteases, was not toxic to patients with celiac disease. Though these studies are groundbreaking, it is far too soon for celiac disease patients to try this at home. For sourdough bread to be an option for those with celiac disease, a uniform production process would need to be established to ensure the end product is gluten-free.

For those with Gluten Sensitivity, Is it Really the Gluten?

Some people may experience bloating and flatulence in response to FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols). FODMAPs are a type of carbohydrates that are not well absorbed in the small intestine and are present in bread along with a number of other foods (other grains, some vegetables and fruits). In some people the problem may be FODMAPs, not gluten. The long fermentation process reduces FODMAPs.

How to Make Sourdough at Home

Sourdough starter begins with flour and water that sits for several days while being fed intermittently with both flour and water allowing bacteria (lactobacilli) and yeast to grow and multiply creating live cultures. These microorganisms are what makes the dough ferment similar to the way milk ferments to become yogurt. Check out these recipes to make your own sourdough bread: Healthy Aperture, the Perfect Loaf.

If you run into problems making sourdough check out this page for troubleshooting.

 

 

How Much Protein Can Your Body Use from One Meal?

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Steak is a high protein meal

How much protein can your body digest and use at a time? If you you eat the right amount of protein at every meal you’ll supposedly hit the sweet spot – maximum muscle growth and satiety (fullness) without wasting food or money. General guidelines based on short term trials and one cross-sectional study suggest adults need regular meals including 25 – 45 grams of protein per meal to maintain or build muscle mass and maximum strength (1, 2, 3). However, it is possible that more protein per meal may be beneficial in some instances while the per meal amount might not matter very much in others. Your body can and will digest all of the protein you eat in a sitting (it might take a while) and it doesn’t just discard any excess that isn’t used to build structures in the body.

In this article I’ll cover:

  1. Why should we focus on a “per meal” dose of protein?
  2. What happens to “leftover” protein;
  3. What influences protein requirements;
  4. How you can estimate your protein needs.

Does the Amount of Protein Per Meal Matter?

In a really cool study conducted by well-known protein scientists, the minimum amount of protein per meal found to maximally spike muscle growth was 0.11 grams per lb. of body weight in younger adults and 0.18 grams per lb. of body weight in older adults (over 71 years of age) (2). Older adults need more protein due to a decline in muscle response to protein intake that occurs with age. In addition to a minimum, there is an upper limit of protein intake; anything beyond this threshold dose will not be used to build muscle. For example, one study examined 4 ounces of beef containing 30 grams of protein compared to 12 ounces of beef containing 90 grams of protein. The larger serving did not lead to a greater increase in acute muscle protein synthesis compared to the 4 ounce serving (4). So now we know we need some protein, but not 90 grams in one sitting. However, we still don’t know what the minimum upper limit is, beyond which higher intakes do not lead to increases in muscle mass or muscle functioning over time (5).

More evidence for a per meal dose came from a short-term study that found an even pattern of high quality protein at each meal (30 grams per meal; 1.2 g/kg for the day) as opposed to a skewed pattern (10 grams at breakfast, 15 g lunch and 65 g at dinner; 1.2 g/kg for the day) may be best for maximally stimulating muscle building in young adults (1).

Despite the evidence in favor of an even distribution of protein intake throughout the day, a short-term study in older, resistance trained adults given 2x the RDA – 0.68 grams of protein per lb. bodyweight (1.5 grams per kg) per day in an uneven or even pattern (see chart at the end of this article) or the RDA of 0.36 grams of protein per lb. bodyweight (0.8 grams per kg) per day again in an uneven or even pattern found the pattern of intake didn’t matter. Consuming 2x the RDA, regardless of whether it was consumed in an uneven or even pattern, led to a significantly greater increase in muscle protein synthesis compared to consuming 1x the RDA. The pattern of protein intake didn’t matter, possibly due to age-related decline in muscle response to protein intake,  greater total daily protein intake or some other factor (6).

What Happens to Excess Protein Intake?

There is no long-term storage site for amino acids, the building blocks of protein. After eating a thick juicy steak, creamy bowl of split pea soup or sizzling soy fajitas, your body digests the protein and absorbs the amino acids, using them to build new structures, including muscle. When excess protein is consumed, more than the body needs at that point in time, the rest is used for energy or  converted to body fat. The nitrogen (from amino acids) is combined with other compounds to form urea, a harmless waste product, which is processed by the kidneys and excreted in the urine.

What Influences Protein Requirements?

Though 90 grams in one sitting may be more than necessary for muscle, science has yet to figure out the exact threshold beyond which there is no benefit for muscle. This is a complicated question as there are many factors that influence a person’s daily protein needs as well as how much protein a person may need at each meal. These include but are not limited to: age, training status, total daily calorie intake (if dieting total protein needs are higher), overall amount of protein consumed each day; the type (anti-nutrients?), quality and leucine (or EAA) content of the protein consumed at each meal, other nutrients consumed at meal time, training program, lean body mass, health status and goals.

How Much Protein Do You Need at Each Meal?

Given the research to date, does a per meal does matter?

If you are dieting, yes.

If you don’t get at least 0.55 grams protein per lb. body weight (1.2 grams per kg), yes.

If you eat plenty of protein every day and a decent amount at regular meals throughout the day, it might not matter that much, or at all.

For now, stick to the general guideline of at least 25 grams per meal (the amount of an average female’s palm worth of chicken, turkey, red meat, fish). You may need more, per meal, to maximize muscle growth and repair  if:

  • You are older (relative term since we don’t know exactly what age qualifies as “older). Aim for 1.0 – 1.5 grams of protein per day (7) and regular meals with a good amount of protein per meal. If you have chronic kidney disease, follow the advice of your RD and MD.
  • You eat primarily vegetarian proteins.

Many factors influence a person’s nutrition needs. If you want to maintain or gain muscle mass and strength, concentrate on your total daily protein intake (at least 0.55 grams of protein per lb. of bodyweight; 1.2 grams per kg) followed by how much you consume at each meal. There is no one-size-fits-all ideal protein intake per meal and the body doesn’t just “waste” protein that isn’t used for muscle building. For now, research suggests 25 to 45 grams per meal is a good general guideline. More may be better for muscle. Less may be necessary if you have chronic kidney disease.

Table: Quantity of dietary protein intake, but not pattern of intake, affects net protein balance primarily through differences in protein synthesis in older adults (select data and average leucine intake calculated)

Amount Pattern Meal Protein (grams) Protein as a % of total calories Average leucine intake per meal (calculated)
1x RDA Uneven Breakfast 11.1 8 0.89
Lunch 14.9 8 0.89
Dinner 47.8 12 3.56
Total 73.7 10 4.45
Even Breakfast 22.3 15 1.63
Lunch 21.5 9 1.63
Dinner 22.0 9 0.81
Total 65.8 11 4.07
2x RDA Uneven Breakfast 18.1 15 0.80
Lunch 24.3 12 1.60
Dinner 78.4 22 4.79
Total 120.8 19 7.99
Even Breakfast 38.0 25 2.98
Lunch 36.5 17 2.98
Dinner 37.9 18 2.23
Total 112.4 19 8.2

References

1 Mamerow MM, Mettler JA, English KL, Casperson SL, Arentson-Lantz E, Sheffield-Moore M, Layman DK, Paddon-Jones D. Dietary protein distribution positively influences 24-h muscle protein synthesis in healthy adults. J Nutr. 2014 Jun;144(6):876-80.

2 Moore DR, Churchward-Venne TA, Witard O, Breen L, Burd NA, Tipton KD, Phillips SM. Protein ingestion to stimulate myofibrillar protein synthesis requires greater relative protein intakes in healthy older versus younger men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2015;70(1):57-62.

3 Loenneke JP, Loprinzi PD, Murphy CH, Phillips SM et al. Per meal dose and frequency of protein consumption is associated with lean mass and muscle performance. Clin Nutr 2016 Apr 7.

4 Symons TB, Sheffield-Moore M, Wolfe RR, Paddon-Jones D. A moderate serving of high-quality protein maximally stimulates skeletal muscle protein synthesis in young and elderly subjects.J Am Diet Assoc 2009;109(9):1582-6.

5 Deutz NE, Wolfe RR. Is there a maximal anabolic response to protein intake with a meal? Clin Nutr 2013;32(2):309-313.

6 Kim IY, Schutzler S, Schrader A, et al. Quantity of dietary protein intake, but not pattern of intake, affects net protein balance primarily through differences in protein synthesis in older adults. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2015;308(1):E21-8.

7 Paddon-Jones D, Campbell WW, Jacques PF, Kritchevsky SB1, Moore LL, Rodriguez NR, van Loon LJ. Protein and healthy aging. Am J Clin Nutr 2015 Apr 29.

 

 

Save Money at the Grocery Store, Improve Health & Save the Earth

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Food: Fruits and vegetables

 

 

Today is Earth Day, a day focused on building a healthy, sustainable environment. Keep the earth healthy, slash your grocery bill and improve your health at the same time. Here’s how:

Avoid Food Waste

In America, food is cheap and always available. This oversupply of food combined with food marketing means we over buy and end up throwing out an average of 31 – 41% of the food we purchase. In addition to throwing your hard earned dollar in the trash can, food waste drains the environment. Rotting fruits and vegetables, the top food wasted, uses fresh water and contributes to ethylene gas, methane and CO2 emissions all of which are harmful for our environment (1). “Food waste now accounts for more than one quarter of the total freshwater consumption and ∼300 million barrels of oil per year” (1). Rotting food produces a large amount of methane gas, a gas that has 25 times the impact of CO2 on global warming (3). Dairy products are second behind fruits and vegetables followed by meat, which has the biggest impact on the environment.
Here’s what you can do to avoid waste:

    1. Use a shopping list to prevent impulse buys. It doesn’t matter if it’s on sale if you will end up throwing it out.
    2. Buy small amounts and only what you need and will realistically use before it goes bad.
    3. Buy frozen and canned versions, which have the same nutrition value and you can use them at your convenience (metal cans are endlessly recyclable)
    4. Keep fruits and vegetables fresh or for longer period of time with products that decrease the production of ethylene gas (find them in your local natural food store in the produce section).
    5. Don’t automatically throw food out when the “use by” date arrives. That date is a measure of quality and not food safety. Assess your food to ensure it is still safe (smell your meat, poultry, fish, dairy, nuts and oils; make sure fruits and vegetables are not molded).
    6. Follow these tips from Reader’s Digest.

Choose Plant Proteins

Plant proteins typically cost less $ than meat, fish and poultry and they cost less in terms of environmental resources to produce – less water, fewer environmental gases produced. Plant proteins also deliver plant-based compounds that protect the body. When choosing plant proteins you may need more, per meal, to get the right amount of muscle building amino acids.  In addition to swapping out some meat-based meals, consider eating smaller amounts of meat and adding a plant protein as a side dish. Here are some excellent choices based on their nutrition profile:

  • Peas, split pea soup
  • Legumes, beans, bean pastas, lentils (I soak lentils for about 45 minutes and add them to a variety of dishes)
  • Soy foods including tofu, tempeh, edamame
  • Nut, bean and other flours –  substitute some of the flour in your  recipe for: pecan, peanut, almond, garbanzo bean, fava bean, black bean and other higher protein flours

Buy Staples in Bulk

Whole Foods, Sprouts, Wegmans and similar stores have a bulk section where you can get everything from black rice to oatmeal. Consider shopping in the bulk isle. You’ll save $ and food packaging!

Is Coffee Good for You?

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CoffeeDrinking coffee will leave you dehydrated and geeked out on caffeine. For several decades we’ve been warned about America’s favorite beverage. Yet these dire warnings were largely based on assumptions rather than actual science. A growing body of evidence suggests your morning Cup O’ Joe may be good for you! Here’s a look at the latest research.

What’s in a Coffee Bean?

Coffee beans are actually seeds from coffee cherries. They are picked, dried, and roasted turning them from green to those familiar aromatic brown beans we know and love. It’s ironic that a beverage made from seeds has gotten such a bad rap. Green coffee beans are naturally rich in antioxidants including chlorogenic acids, compounds that are readily absorbed in the human body, have antibacterial and anti-inflammatory actions and are associated with many health benefits including a reduction in cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. Antioxidants protect plants from disease and pests. Some antioxidants also protect human cells from harm. Roasted coffee beans are loaded with antioxidants (contrary to popular belief, they are not destroyed during roasting) and scientists are slowly uncovering the metabolic fate of each type antioxidant as well as the potential health benefits associated with regular coffee intake.

Potential Health Benefits

A National Institutes of Health study published in 2012 found older adults who drank caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee were less likely to die from heart disease, respiratory disease, stroke, injuries and accidents, diabetes, and infections. Those who drank over 3 cups per day had a 10% lower risk of death compared to those who did not drink coffee. Though this study only showed an association between coffee consumption and a decreased risk of death, it provided some reassurance to people who couldn’t seem to give up their favorite beverage. Studies published over the past three years lend strength to the relationship between regular coffee intake and a decreased risk of certain diseases.

Heart Health
A study published in the British Medical Journal’s publication Heart, examined diet and artery health in over 25,000 Korean men and women. Those who drank 3 to 5 cups of coffee per day were 19% less likely to have the first signs of atherosclerosis,  plaque buildup on artery walls, compared to those who were not coffee drinkers. Lower intakes were not associated with a reduction in plaque buildup. Drawbacks to this study: diet was examined at one point in time and study subjects were asked to recall their coffee intake over the previous year (people generally don’t recall their food / drink intake with great accuracy). Also, keep in mind this study showed an association between coffee intake and artery health, it doesn’t prove that coffee reduces plaque buildup on artery walls or that it can prevent cardiovascular disease. More research is needed to understand how coffee intake could potentially support heart health.

Cancer
A recently published study found individuals previously treated for stage III colon cancer who were regular coffee drinkers, consuming at least 4 cups of caffeinated coffee per day, had a 42% lower risk of recurrence of colon cancer and 33% lower risk of dying from the disease. This study found an association between coffee intake and decreased risk of colon cancer recurrence.

Research on coffee intake and risk of various cancers is mixed with some showing it is protective and others suggesting it may increase risk. Keep in mind there are many potential factors that impact cancer risk and risk of cancer recurrence with a sedentary lifestyle, high body fat and alcohol intake strongly associated with increased risk of certain types of cancer. Fruit and vegetable intake is associated with a decreased risk of some types of cancers. As for your Cup O’ Joe, time and more research, will tell us how America’s favorite beverage fits in the picture.

Should You Increase Your Coffee Intake?

All of these studies on regular coffee consumption include higher intakes. No benefits are noted for lower intakes – one to two cups per day. Keep in mind that some people should avoid or be cautious with caffeine intake including kids, teens, people with anxiety disorders, glaucoma, heartburn or cardiovascular disease. Also, pregnant women should avoid higher intakes of caffeine – more than 3 cups of coffee per day (regular sizes cups). Now about the caffeine – regular intake of moderate amounts of caffeine will not dehydrate you.

If you drink coffee in moderation, enjoy it! Don’t increase your intake based on these studies or start drinking if you aren’t a regular coffee consumer. Future research will tell us more about the many naturally occurring compounds in coffee, their actions in the body and the potential link between coffee and disease risk.

References
Heart 10.1136/heartjnl-2014-306663
New Eng J Med 2012;366:1891-1904.
J Nutr 2008;138(12):2309-15.
Mol Nutr Food Res 2005;49:274–84.
J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:8738–43.
Am J Epidemiol 2002;156:445–53.
Biol Pharm Bull 2006;29:2236–4
Pest Manag Sci 2003 Apr;59(4):459-64.
J Clin Oncol 2015 Aug 17. [Epub ahead of print]

 

 

Grass Fed Lies: The Truth about Organic Milk & Grass Fed Beef

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Grass fed meat

If you’ve been sucking up the extra cost of organic dairy products and grass fed beef, comforted by the fact that you’re doing what’s good for your body, I have some news for you: you’ve gained little more than peace of mind grounded in a marketing scam. There is no meaningful nutrition difference in organic milk, grass fed beef and their conventional (non organic / grass fed) counterparts.

The Truth about Organic Dairy

Organic milk is packed with omega-3 fatty acids, iron and vitamin D, according to an article published Feb. 16 in the British Journal of Nutrition. This meta-analysis examined the results from 170 published studies comparing the nutrient content of organic milk with conventional milk. They suggest organic milk wins by a landslide: it’s nutritionally superior to its conventional counterparts. Though there were no significant differences in saturated fat and monounsaturated fat in organic vs. conventional milk, organic milk has 56% more beneficial omega-3 fatty acids, 41% more conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), significantly more vitamin E and iron than conventional milk. Statistically speaking, they are scientifically correct. Nutritionally speaking, these differences are meaningless.

Organic milk contains 56% more omega-3 fats than regular (conventional) milk (56% more based on the total fat content). However, statistically more than a little bit is still a little bit. Milk is not considered a major source of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet, regardless of milk type. In fact, according to one study, 1 cup of organic whole milk has about 8.2 mg of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 11 mg of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) compared to 6.2 mg of EPA and 9.1 mg of DHA. That’s a far cry from the 250 – 500 mg of EPA + DHA we should get, on average, each day. Fatty fish are the best way to get EPA and DHA.

milk jug
Organic Milk:
19 mg EPA + DHA

Conventional Milk:
15 mg EPA + DHA

 

 

 

Salmon

Herring, Wild
Salmon, Farmed (Atlantic)
Salmon, Wild (King)
Mackerel, Wild

1,200 mg EPA + DHA

 

 

  • EPA and DHA are heart smart – they lower blood fats (triglycerides) and blood pressure. Plus they’re good for your brain and eyes.

What about CLA? CLA is group of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in meat and milk. There are many proposed benefits associated with CLA including changes in body fat with ultra high supplemental doses of CLA. However, the difference in CLA content is also biologically meaningless – 56 mg in a glass of organic whole milk and 47 mg in a class of conventional whole milk.

The British Journal of Nutrition research also showed slightly higher beta carotene and vitamin E in organic milk. These very small differences may be due to a host of reasons including seasonal variation and breed. Milk is not a major source of these nutrients, so this has no biological impact on human health. If you want iron, eat more red meat, fish and poultry or plant-based sources including beans, lentils and peas (eat these with a vitamin C rich food to increase the absorption of plant-based iron). For vitamin E your best bets are oils, nuts and seeds.

  • Key point: statistical significance ≠ biological relevance.

What about antibiotics and hormones in dairy? I covered that in another blog post. You can read more about it here.

Is Grass Fed Beef Better?

If you’re one of many Americans paying a premium for grass fed beef because it contains more omega-3s and less saturated fat than it’s unassuming conventional counterparts, it may be time to reconsider where you’re spending your grocery money.

The omega-3s in grass fed beef are different than the kind in fatty fish. Fatty fish and algae contain EPA and DHA. There’s a third omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), found in plants including walnuts, soybeans, pumpkin seeds, flaxseeds and chia seeds. Grass fed beef contains ALA because flaxseeds are added to their feed. While EPA and DHA lower blood fats (triglycerides) and are tied to heart benefits, ALA does not lower blood fats and is not associated with the same heart health benefits. ALA rich foods also contain a variety of other bioactive compounds that may act independently or synergistically to improve cardiovascular disease risk factors (eat the whole food not just ALA). The human body can convert ALA to EPA and DHA but this conversion process is inefficient. Less than 4% of ALA is converted to EPA and less than 1% makes its way to DHA. ALA ≠EPA + DHA. A 5-ounce serving of grass fed beef contains a whopping 20 to 30 mg of ALA (slight variations in brands of grass fed beef based on the cow’s diet). The Adequate Intake for ALA is 1,600 and 1,100 grams per day for adult men and women, respectively. Eat grass fed beef and you’ll get 2 – 3% of the AI for ALA for men and 1-2% for women.

Grass fed beef and conventional beef have the same amount of saturated fat with some differences in the types of saturated fatty acids. The difference in CLA content of grass fed and conventional beef is tiny. According to a review from Dave et al. (Nutr J 2010;9:10), it ranges from 0.13 – 2.65 (grams CLA/100 grams of fat in the meat) in conventional meat and 0.43 – 5.14 (grams CLA/100 grams of fat in the meat) in grass fed beef depending on the cow and feed. So, you could be getting less total CLA in certain cuts of grass fed beef than conventional beef. 

What about the Bacteria in Conventional Beef?
You cook your beef right? Bacteria is killed during cooking. Moot point.

Is Grass Fed More Sustainable? What about Hormones and Antibiotics?
I will address this and other issues in the next post. Stay tuned….

Organic dairy products and grass fed beef come in beautiful, higher end packaging with natural hues of green and brown outlining their superiority to modest looking products that sit beside them on store shelves. If you love the taste, stick with your organic milk and grass fed beef. But don’t buy into the marketing hype.

References

Circulation 2011;123(20):2292-333.
British Journal of Nutrition 2016;115:1043–1060.
PLoS One 2013; 8(12): e82429.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001;74:612–9.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999;69:890–7.
British Medical Journal 1996;313:84–90.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;89(5):1649S-56S.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;83(6):S1526-1535.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12): e82429.
Nutrition Journal 2010, 9:10.

 

 

 

 

Get Your Kids Cooking & Win Cabot Cheese & a Subscription to ChopChop Magazine

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cabot give away

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Find out how you can end food struggles with your child and enter to win $25 of Cabot cheese and a subscription to ChopChop Magazine (learn more about both below)!

Help! My Child only Eats French Fries & Chicken Nuggets!

Parents often tell me say their kids will only eat French fries and chicken nuggets. Or, their children stare at their plate because they don’t like what you served (hello! that was me!). If your child is a picky eater, I have 3 tips that will help eliminate food struggles and get your children on the path to healthy eating.

Take Your Kids Food Shopping

When we were kids my father did all of the food shopping in our family. And, he often took all three of us with him. We became very familiar with the grocery store and different types of foods within each section. As a parent, get your child involved by taking them to the grocery store or farmers market and let them be active participants. Give your children the power of choice. For instance, in the produce isle, let them choose which new fruit they want packed in their school lunch. Also, if you have a little one who is fearful of new foods, have them try a familiar food in a different form. So for instance, in the pasta isle, encourage them to pick different shapes of pasta, whole grain pasta, higher protein pasta, orzo or rice pilaf. This is a very non-threatening way to open their minds to new foods.

Teach Basic Nutrition

Teach easy nutrition facts in relatable terms. So for instance, if your 4 year old loves to color but hates most veggies you put on the table, get a coloring book about farming. ChopChop Magazine, endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics, is my go-to for fun cooking. ChopChop Magazine includes great tasting, budget conscious, easy to prepare recipes, fun food facts and pages full of beautiful pictures that will get kids interested in nutrition and cooking. ChopChop Magazine is perfect for children ages 5 to 12 and anyone new to cooking.

ChopChop

Let Them Play With Their Food

Encourage your child’s creativity during cooking and food preparation by letting them play with their food. Give them a few choices on how to prepare the food and what to combine it with. Do they want to eat their carrots raw, steamed, or in a casserole? Also,  let them make fun shapes out of their food (I love doing this!).
Kids will love making Cabot Cheddar mice from crackers, Cabot Cheddar Cheese, a cut strawberry,  mini chocolate chips, and pretzel sticks.

Cabot cheddar mice

 

Get excited about nutritious food. Kids will model your healthy eating behaviors but and pick up on your perception of different foods. Don’t apologize or say things like “you’ll have to eat your peas if you want dessert” because then your little one will relate peas with something that they shouldn’t enjoy eating.

Win a 1-year subscription to ChopChop Magazine AND a $25 Cabot Cheese gift box!

Cabot Cooperative Creamery  is a family farmer owned Creamery  that produces world-class cheddar cheese,  dips, sour cream, Greek yogurt, cream cheese, and butter.

ChopChopKids is an innovative non-profit organization whose mission is to inspire and teach kids to cook healthy food with their families. They believe that cooking and eating together as a family is a vital step in resolving the obesity and hunger epidemics. ChopChop Magazine reaches more than 2 million families each year and is endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics, was named publication of the year by the James Beard Foundation, and is a two-time winner of the Parent’s Choice Award.

They have a free ChopChop Cooking club – their national healthy cooking campaign to invite every family to join and pledge to cook dinner together once a month for 6 months.

Check out their websites:
www.chopchopmag.org
www.ChopChopCookingClub.org

To enter this contest for your chance to win, tweet your favorite way to get your kids cooking with Cabot Cheddar & tag @cabotcheese & @chopchopmagazine in your tweet. Or, “Like” ChopChop Magazine & Cabot Cooperative Creamery on Facebook and comment on both Facebook pages with your favorite way to  get kids cooking with Cabot Cheddar cheese. All entries will be blinded and the winner chosen by a 13 year old chef at 4 pm today (Oct. 30th).

Does Meat Cause Cancer?

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According to a report released today, processed meat is carcinogenic (cancer causing – see the definition below for more detail). After considering more than 800 studies examining the association between meat and cancer, the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Working Group classified processed meats as Group 1, carcinogenic. They based this on convincing evidence from population based studies that eating processed meats causes colorectal cancer. Yet the results aren’t as crystal clear as they seem.

What is Red Meat and Processed Meat?

Red meat – unprocessed mammalian muscle meat – beef, pork, veal, lamb, mutton, horse or goat meat, including minced or frozen meat

Processed meat – meat that is transformed through salting, curing, fermenting, smoking or other processes to preserve the meat and enhance flavor. Processed meats can include other meats or meat byproducts such as blood. Hot dogs, sausages, corn beef, beef jerky and canned meat are all examples of processed meat.

Carcinogenic – compounds that are carcinogenic “do not cause cancer at all times, under all circumstances. Some may only cause cancer in people who have a certain genetic makeup. Some of these agents may lead to cancer after only a very small exposure, while others might require intense exposure over many years,” states the American Cancer Society.

What they Found

Processed Meat:
Though they considered 800 studies, their conclusions were drawn upon 18 cohort studies (this is when scientists follow a group of people that don’t have the disease – in this case cancer – over time to see who does and who doesn’t develop cancer). Twelve of the 18 studies reported positive associations between processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer. Six out of 9 case-control studies (where they look at the diet of people with cancer and compare it to the diet of people without cancer) reported a positive association and a meta-analysis (statistical approach to combining results from several studies) of 10 cohort studies reported a statistically significant dose-response relationship with an 18% increase in risk for every 50 gram (1.5 oz. or about the size of ½ of a deck of cards) of processed meat eaten daily. Yet Dr. Kurt Straif, Head of the IARC Monographs Programme stated “for an individual, the risk of developing colorectal cancer because of their consumption of processed meat remains small, but this risk increases with the amount of meat consumed.” Recent estimates suggest approximately 34,000 cancer deaths per year can be attributed to diets high in processed meats.

Red Meat:
The Working Group classified red meat as “probably carcinogenic to humans” while stating there is “limited evidence in human beings for the carcinogenicity of the consumption of red meat.” If those two statements sound like they contradict each other, here’s why:

The largest body of data they found was from 14 cohort studies (where they follow a group of people that don’t have the disease – in this case cancer – over time to see who does and who doesn’t develop cancer). Seven of the 14 studies showed higher consumption of red meat (as compared to lower consumption of red meat) was positively associated with colorectal cancer. Seven out of 15 case-control studies (where they look at the diet of people with cancer and compare that to the diet of people without cancer) found higher consumption of red meat was positively associated with colorectal cancer compared to lower intake of red meat. “No association was seen in  several high quality studies.” The author suggests that bias and confounding couldn’t be ruled out (other diet and lifestyle variables may have affected the results.

What Makes Processed Meat Carcinogenic?

When meat, fish, or poultry (chicken, turkey, ducks, geese) are cooked over high temperatures, chemical compounds that are known or suspected carcinogens (cancer causing) including N-nitroso-compounds (NOC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCA) are formed. High and dry heat including frying, grilling and barbecuing are the worst combination for the production of these chemicals. The 2-page report mentions some of these compounds as “mechanistic evidence” supporting their conclusions while also stating that we don’t know how cancer risk is increased by processed and red meat. (The full report won’t come out for several months).

N-nitroso-compounds (NOC) are found in nitrate-cured meats, smoked foods (fish or meat), malt in beer and whiskey production, pickled vegetables and foods stored under humidity leading to fungi that generate nitrosamines.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are formed when fat and juices from meat grilled over an open flame drip onto the fire, resulting in flames, and PAHs adhering to the surface of the meat. Smoking meats also leads to the formation of PAHs. PAHs are also found in air pollution.

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are harmful compounds formed during dry heat cooking. Though many foods contain AGEs, meats fried or cooked over dry heat have significantly more AGEs than any other food. AGEs accumulate in the human body, affect cell functioning and may contribute to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and, as the name implies, aging.

Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCA) are formed when amino acids, sugars and creatine react at high temperatures. When meat, fish, pork and poultry are cooked at higher temperatures for a longer period of time, more HCAs are formed.

HCAs and PAHs must be metabolized by specific enzymes (a process called bioactivation) before they can damage DNA. Yet the activity of these enzymes varies between people and therefore, one’s risk of developing cancer due to HCA and PAH exposure depends on how they metabolize these compounds.

What this Report Does Not Tell Us

IARC Working Groups examine if exposure to a specific food or compound could cause cancer but does not tell us how likely we are to get cancer. Also, there are many known human carcinogens (UV light – including the UV light in those LEDs lights used to set gel nails, alcohol, the mineral oil you use on wood cutting boards and more) – some many cause cancer after little exposure while others take a lifetime of exposure. Many factors influence the development of cancer including age, gender, family history, and other lifestyle factors (tobacco and alcohol use, weight, diet, physical activity).

How Much Processed & Red Meat is Too Much?

Cancer is a complex disease and no single food causes, cures or prevents cancer. However, as stated by the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR):

  • A modest amount of red meat does not raise colorectal cancer risk.
  • Eating more than 18 ounces of cooked red meat per week increases the risk of  colorectal cancer.
  • Eating small amounts of processed meat regularly increases risk (of colorectal cancer).

AICR recommends avoiding processed meats and eating no more than 18 ounces of red meat per week (3 oz. = about the amount in a deck of cards). I also suggest making potentially better choices (see the infographic below and the 2nd to last paragraph of this blog post). What about HCAs, PAHs and other compounds? Here’s how you can decrease your intake of these compounds:

cooking meat
Where does meat processed without nitrates fit in? We don’t know. If they are processed without nitrates then they should  presumably contain few to no NOCs making them a better choice than meats processed with nitrates. However, I couldn’t find a single study comparing the compounds in meats produced without nitrates to their counterparts produced with nitrates.

If you aren’t preparing your food at home, take a close look at how it was prepared and cooked so you can minimize your intake of these compounds. If you don’t plan on cutting out processed meats, at the very least, limit your intake of sausage, ham, bacon, hot dogs, pepperoni, pastrami, bologna, corned beef, deli/luncheon meats, salami, nitrite-treated meat or meat products as well as meat preserved by smoking, curing or salting, all of which could increase your risk of cancer.

Disclosures: None, I have no connection to any red meat commodity boards, stock in red or processed meat companies (though I should look up the shorts or consider buying on a dip) or emotional connection to cows, pigs, horses, red or processed meats 🙂

References:
National Cancer Institute. 
American Institute for Cancer Research
Medline Plus.
Nutr Cancer 2008;60(2):131–144.
J Food Sci 2008;73(6):T100-5.
Cancer Sci 2010;101(2):508-16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2012;21(6):905-15.
Int J Cancer 2014;134(1):125-35.
J Am Diet Assoc 2010;110(6):911-16.
Curr Diab Rep 2014;14(1):453.
Ann N Y Acad Sci 2005;1043:533-44.

Good Food Bad Food

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As a dietitian I’m often asked “is {insert food} good for me?” or, another common variation of this question: “is {food} healthy?” I often want to respond “well heck I don’t know, I know nothing about you!” Is kale a good food? Yes. Are you on coumadin? Then no, you can’t go hog-wild and throw down plates of kale or green drinks.

The Good Food, Bad Food or stoplight approach for all is an easy system that fails to truly reach and teach people about the foods that are best for them, given their situation. Sure, it’s kind of obvious no one chooses a doughnut or soda to improve the nutrition content of their diet. But, there’s more gray area after doughnuts then red or green lights that can succinctly group foods into categories for the masses. Plus, many very good-for-you foods (sometimes referred to as “nutrient dense” meaning they have a good amount of vitamins, minerals, fiber and other nutrients in them) may not make the cut because they have too many calories per serving or don’t meet some other general criteria needed before they get that green stamp of approval. And many others that are on the list may be ones you don’t like, don’t know how to prepare or don’t settle well in your stomach.

Like any team sport game (football, tennis, basketball, soccer etc.), food can be very situation-dependent (depends on what’s best for you). You put in the right players to get the job done depending on the opponents you face. Likewise, instead of letting green and red guide you to what you should and shouldn’t eat, add the right foods to your diet based on your particular situation and to get the vitamins, minerals, fiber, and healthy plant-based compounds needed to build, repair and support functions within your body while also pleasing your tastebuds.

Here’s an example of seemingly healthy foods that are off limits for many people – making a single answer to this question very tough.

Good Food, Bad Food

Nutrition is complex and I start people off with easy to follow guidelines. But, keep in mind when I (or another dietitian) answers the Good Food, Bad Food question we are answering it for you and not for the masses or for the masses in general though it may not fit on your eating plan.

Junk Food in Disguise: Foods that Seem Healthy but Aren’t

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Foods that Seem Healthy But Aren’t

Some marketing teams are so good they can take what’s otherwise considered junk food, wrap it up nicely (with natural hues of green and tan on the package of course) and market it as something you should feel good about eating. Before you give yourself a pat on the back, check out these not-so-healthy “health foods” that I featured on WBAL NBC Baltimore, MD this morning.

1. Trail Mix. It’s so easy to believe that all trail mix is healthy. But, you’ll want to watch out for sugary candies, milk chocolate, dried fruit coated with added sugar or fake yogurt coating. Leave the candy for Trick-or-Treaters, and choose in-shell pistachios for your snacks instead of prepared trail mixes. Preliminary behavioral studies suggest that you may consume fewer calories if you opt for in-shell pistachios versus those already shelled because it takes time to break them open and the shells are a visual reminder of what you’ve eaten. Wonderful Pistachios 100-calorie snack packs make a great on-the-go snack that conveniently helps control your portions. If you still want trail mix, make your own with dried fruit that doesn’t contain any added sugar (dried plum bits, apricots or papaya for instance).

2.  Veggie Chips. If you flip over the package you’ll see that most veggie chips are really fried potato chips with added spinach powder, tomato powder or little bits of dried vegetables here and there. Unfortunately they don’t count as a serving of vegetables.

Better Alternatives: black bean chips made with real black beans, roasted chickpeas – you can    make these at home or buy them in a wide variety of flavors or kale chips. All of these options give you the crunchy and salty texture you may be craving.

3. Veggie Pasta. Like vegetable chips, veggie pasta often contains small amounts of powdered vegetables that do little more than turn the pasta a different color. If you want pasta that is actually made from vegetables, check out Explore Asian’s line of bean pastas. They are gluten free, vegan, organic and high in both fiber and protein (24 or more grams of protein per serving). I made black bean butternut squash for TV this morning as well as a homemade pesto for Explore Asian edamame pasta.

4. Light Olive Oil. Light (or extra light) olive oil isn’t lower in calories or fat. Instead, “light” refers to the flavor and color. Here’s what you should look for:

“Extra virgin” means the olives have been pressed to release the oil (anything labeled just “olive oil” means chemicals or other methods were used to release the oil from the olives; this oil is lower in both nutrition and flavor quality).

Dark glass containers. Heat and light can damage olive oil. Glass protects better than plastic and dark glass protects better than light glass. Your olive oil will not only taste better but also preserve the integrity of your oil (rancid oil isn’t good for your body).

A University of California Davis study found many brands of olive oil sold here in the US failed their test for sensory standards (possibly due, in part, to adulteration since olive oil is one of the most adulterated foods – lower quality oils are mixed in to increase the profit margin). Two brands that faired the best according to their study: California Olive Ranch and Lucini.

5. Turkey Bacon. Many brands of turkey bacon have almost the exact same nutrition profile as regular bacon in terms of calories, fat and sodium. So, choose this if you love turkey, not if you are looking for a leaner choice. If you want great tasting bacon that contains fewer calories, less fat and sodium, check out uncured Canadian turkey bacon.
Regardless of your choice – pork, turkey or some type of Canadian bacon, always look for uncured bacon. Consumption of cured meats can increase risk of developing colorectal cancer.