How Dieting Wrecked your Self Esteem and Made you Overweight

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This article is for all serial dieters. If you’ve been dieting on and off for years yet never achieved or maintained your “goal” weight, you’ve been handcuffed to the multi-billion dollar diet industry. I’m here to tell you why you need to break free and how to do it.

Why You Need to Break Free From Dieting

If you are a perpetual dieter, in search of the latest magic weight loss diet or pill, you may be doing more harm than good.

Dieting Slows Your Metabolism
Losing weight leads to a drop in the amount of calories you burn each day so you need to cut your calories even more after you lose the weight to maintain your new weight. This happens even if you preserve muscle (each pound of muscle burns about four more calories per day then a pound of fat) (9). This is termed metabolic adaptation and the reasons for it aren’t entirely clear though the decrease in metabolism is correlated with how many calories you cut and changes in the hormone leptin. Leptin is a hormone secreted by fat cells; it helps regulate body weight and energy balance (7, 8).

The more you cut calories the more your metabolism will drop.

Rapid and massive weight loss seems to lead to the greatest drop in metabolic rate.

Though this happens, it doesn’t mean you shouldn’t lose weight if needed for health reasons. However, the “Oprah” cycle of repetitive low calorie dieting followed by weight regain needs to stop.

Diets Over Promise and Under Deliver
Diets promise you’ll get ripped in no time. Research tells us you won’t lose all of the weight you expect to lose (1). And that’s ok. However, unrealistic expectations are a problem because they make you want to ditch the diet or worse, binge eat because you are pissed off that you’ve been lied to.

Reign in your expectations with these validated weight loss calculators:

Pennington Biomedical Research Center Weight Loss Calculator

USDA SuperTracker

Your Life Won’t Magically Change
Dieting tells you your entire life will get better once you lose 10 lbs. Sure, you might need to hem a few pairs of pants and your self esteem may improve a bit. However, you won’t turn into a GQ or Sports Illustrated swimsuit edition cover model. Your boss will treat you the same, your relationships won’t magically improve and everything else in your life might appear to be static if you are waiting for fireworks.

There are many times I run into people who want to lose weight and as I start asking questions and digging I realize they are attempting to control their weight and hyper control their food intake because there is something in their life that is out of control. They are transferring the focus on their body, food and exercise to calm their brain down and decrease anxiety about parts of their life that are raveling out of control.

Don’t use dieting as an excuse to avoid major life issues.

Dieting Tells You “You’re Not Okay”
Many popular diets, pills and programs marketed through airbrushed ads tell you one thing “there is something is wrong with you and this book, program or pill can help you fix it.” They are preying on your vulnerable self-esteem. Taking the bait is like jumping into a dark and depressing pit over and over, attempting to crawl out, losing your grip and getting kicked right back down. Every time you gain a little weight back or judge yourself based on the bathroom scale you’ll feel dejected.

“Where there is perfectionism there is always shame (guilt, regret, sadness),” Brene Brown.

Consistently feeding your mind with a diet of “I’m not good enough” is no way to live. Treat yourself with some respect.

“I’m not good enough” is also a mental roadblock to achieving your goals. One day you’ll have a tough day, come home and say “F this. I’m fat, I might as well eat this whole package of Milky Ways.” Next thing you know you feel like a failure and fall into the ultimate Feedback Loop from Hell. “Why can’t I stick with a diet? I suck.” Once stuck in this mindset, it’s hard to recognize there could be something wrong with the diet itself and the promises (lies) you’ve been told if you just follow it.

I’m here to say you are okay.

Letting Go of the Diet Crutch

If you’ve been dieting on and off for years, recognize that you will have some anxiety in letting go. That’s okay. There are steps you can take to combat anxiety over time and still achieve good health.

What if You Want to / Need to Lose Weight?
If you need lose weight for health reasons, yet you’ve dieted over and over in the past, without reaching your goal, it is time to do something different. Here are steps you can take to a healthier weight and life without dieting:

• Get Support – research shows people who have support are more likely to take weight off and less likely to gain it back.

• Keep in mind moderate weight loss can make a tremendous difference in health. Even small amounts of weight loss can lower blood fats (triglycerides), cholesterol, blood sugar, risk for diabetes and other chronic diseases.

• Start with exercise while focusing on the immediate benefits of exercise – improved mood, improved memory, greater self esteem.

• Be proud of small “wins.” If you haven’t exercised since recess in elementary school, it isn’t necessary to jump right into high intensity interval training three days per week. Start small and be proud of your changes along the way. Even 5 to 10 minutes of exercise each day plus one diet change will help build healthy long-term habits.

• Realize that nobody is looking at you in your bathing suit on the beach and judging your body. We are the harshest critics of ourselves. Someday you will look back and regret not wearing that bathing suit and enjoying the water.

• Go on a diet from the media. Constantly viewing “ideal” body images reduces body satisfaction. In other words, the more you look at popular magazines with airbrushed pictures the worse you will feel about yourself (2, 3, 4). This is true for both men and women.

• Find a physical trait you love and focus on it daily. You will feel better about your body when you focus on the parts of your body you like the best. Conversely, focusing on the parts of your body you do not like will increase body dissatisfaction (5).

• Check out the Happiness Trap – an empowering self-help book based on behavioral psychology.

Follow This Approach
There are two approaches to not dieting and both go hand-in-hand. The first one is Intuitive Eating. Intuitive eating breaks the dieting cycle and teaches you how to feed your body based on hunger and satiety cues. There are number of intuitive eating counselors who can help you with this.

The second approach is Body Kindness. This book is about creating a happier and healthier life. The focus is on spiraling up, the idea that your mindset and mood influences your choices and vice versa to help you stay more positive, optimistic and open to bring the best you to the world — and it has nothing to do with what you weigh. Author Rebecca Scritchfield, RDN, a former chronic dieter who broke free from the cyle of dieting and emotional overeating, believes dieting creates a downward spiral because it enhances your negative emotions. Body Kindness is based on three pillars: Love Connect Care. Make choices from a place of love, connect to your body to find out what you really need, and fully commit to your self-care plans.

I use diets, when warranted, and prescribed the right way for those who are not perpetual dieters. I do not recommend them for people who have gone on and off them for years and have a poor body image. I will never forget the time I counseled a woman in her 30s who had been on and off Weight Watchers since she was a pre-teen. She said, “it works for me.” And she was surprised at my response “no, it hasn’t worked for you because if it did you wouldn’t be sitting in front of me today.” She said she was ashamed about how she looked. My response, “let’s work on that. It’s time to let go, break free, give up emotional overeating and body shame.” That’s no way to live.

References

1 Dhurandhar EJ et al. Predicting adult weight change in the real world: a systematic review and meta-analysis accounting for compensatory changes in energy intake or expenditure. Int J Obes (Lond) 2015;39(8):1181-7.

2 Morry MM, Staska SL. Magazine exposure: Internalization, self-objectification, eating attitudes, and body satisfaction in male and female university students. Can J Behav 2001; 33: 269–279

3 Grabe S, Ward LM, Hyde JS. The role of the media in body image concerns among women: a meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies.
Psychol Bull 2008;134(3):460-76.

4 Agliata D, Tantleff-Dunn S (2004) The impact of media exposure on males’ body image. J Soc Clin Psychol 23: 7–22

5 Smeets E, Jansen A, Roefs A. Bias for the (un)attractive self: on the role of attention in causing body (dis)satisfaction. Health Psychol 2011;30(3):360-7.

6 Lowe MR et al. Multiple types of dieting prospectively predict weight gain during the freshman year of college. Appetite 2006;47(1):83-90.

7 Zhou Y and Rui L. Leptin signaling and leptin resistance. Front Med 7: 207-222, 2013.

8 Knuth ND, Johannsen DL, Tamboli RA, Marks-Shulman PA, Huizenga R, Chen KY, Abumrad NN, Ravussin E, and Hall KD. Metabolic adaptation following massive weight loss is related to the degree of energy imbalance and changes in circulating leptin. Obesity (Silver Spring) 22: 2563-2569, 2014.

9 Johannsen DL, Knuth ND, Huizenga R, Rood JC, Ravussin E, and Hall KD. Metabolic slowing with massive weight loss despite preservation of fat-free mass. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012; 97: 2489-2496.

Slow Digesting Carbohydrates for Fat Loss and Better Performance?

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Consume fewer calories, use more body fat and feel great during exercise – these are the claims behind slow digesting carbohydrates. Before you ditch your typical sports drink in favor of a slow digesting carbohydrate, check out the truth behind each of these lofty claims.

In this post I will cover:

  • One big fat myth – slow digesting carbohydrates won’t help you burn body fat
  • Trying to burn fat during exercise is pointless
  • Fast carbohydrates are better for high-intensity athletes
  • Advice for those on a low carbohydrate diet

According to Generation UCAN, makers of a slow digesting starch (a type of carbohydrate), typical high sugar sports nutrition products cause a rapid increase in energy followed by low blood sugar leading to a sharp crash, leaving you feeling tired with a bad case of the munchies (“post-workout cravings” according to their website). Generation UCAN’s starch will keep your blood sugar levels nice and steady while delivering long-lasting energy for hard-working muscles. The payoff? You need fewer carbohydrates (and therefore calories) to fuel activity and your insulin levels (a hormone that helps store body fat among other functions) are kept low so your body can pull from a larger supply of body fat (multiple times larger than the amount of carbohydrate stored in muscle and liver).

All of this sounds great in theory. Yet none of it holds up in real life.

Typical sports nutrition products do not cause a sharp crash (symptoms of low blood sugar) when consumed before or during exercise (1). Instead, your body will use the sugar pretty quickly to fuel hard working muscles (2). What about post-workout cravings? Typical sports drinks, gels and gummies won’t lead to cravings, despite possible changes in blood sugar, even if you consume them when your body doesn’t need them – when you are sitting on the couch scrolling through Snapchat videos (3).

One Big Fat Myth – Slow Digesting Carbohydrates Won’t Help You Lose Body Fat

Trying to burn fat during exercise is pointless (unless you are a ultra distance athlete and therefore relying on large amounts of fat for energy to run for several hours at a time). Otherwise it doesn’t matter if more fat is used during exercise. What matters most if you want to lose weight? The total amount of calories burned over time.

You are better off burning fat while sitting in front of your computer or sleeping then trying to maximize fat used during exercise. Why? Fat is a slow source of energy – if you are seriously tapping into your fat stores during exercise you aren’t exercising very hard and therefore you aren’t burning very many calories. If you want to make the most of your exercise sessions, burning as many calories as possible, you’ll need carbohydrates to help you sustain your exercise intensity. It’s the difference between walking and sprinting. You have to walk for a much longer period of time to burn as many calories as you will if you are sprinting or doing intervals.

Fast Carbohydrates are Better for Athletic Performance

slow digesting carbohydratesCarbohydrates are the best source of energy to keep up with the calorie demand of high-intensity exercise. The less carbohydrate you have stored in your muscle (stored from the carbohydrate you eat each day), the more your body will rely on carbohydrate consumed during exercise in the form of sports drinks, gels, beans, gummies etc. Fast carbohydrates (the mix of sugars in common sports nutrition products) have been successfully used for decades. Yet some athletes get an upset stomach when exercising. Generation UCAN says their product will lower risk of stomach upset. Unfortunately, a well-designed study found athletes actually had greater stomach upset on UCAN (a slow digesting carbohydrate) than they did on traditional sports nutrition drinks (8). If you don’t want the nitty-gritty science, skip the next section and move to the following paragraph.

In this crossover study (each study subject experienced each type of drink) 10 male cyclists consumed 1) 60 grams of carbohydrate from a typical sports nutrition drink (sucrose and glucose blend) 30 minutes before and 60 grams of carbohydrate per hour during exercise (Sports Drink); 2) 60 grams of carbohydrate from UCAN (hydrothermally-modified starch; HMS) before and 60 grams of carbohydrate per hour during exercise (Isocaloric HMS); 3) 60 grams of carbohydrate from UCAN before and 30 grams of carbohydrate per hour during exercise (Low HMS). They spent three hours exercising (one hour at a moderate pace followed by intervals and sprints). There was no difference in performance between the Sports Drink and High HMS. Both the Sports Drink and High HMS resulted in slightly better performance compared to Low HMS (less carbohydrate during exercise). Consuming UCAN, whether 30 or 60 grams per hour, led to greater incidence of nausea compared to consuming 60 grams of carbohydrate per hour from a typical Sports Drink (8).

Typical carbohydrates used in sports nutrition products are digested quickly and used by muscles right away so you can train harder than you would if you relied on slow carbohydrates. The body can use about 30 – 60 grams of carbohydrate per hour, and possibly up to 90 if a mix of different sugars is used. Fat metabolism kicks in after around 20 minutes of aerobic exercise. “After about two hours of continuous endurance exercise, fat is a major source of energy. However, carbohydrate is still essential. Without enough carbohydrate present there is incomplete burning of fatty acids resulting in ketone bodies as a byproduct. When ketones build up, the body’s pH drops (metabolic acidosis) and the body attempts to compensate via respiratory hyperventilation,” states sports dietitian Sally Hara, MS, RD, CSSD, CDE. You won’t improve performance if you consume slow carbohydrates before or during exercise (5).

Fast carbohydrates are also preferential right after exercise – your body can rapidly replenish carbohydrate stores in muscle for use during her next training session. This is very important for athletes who train more than once over the course of an 8-hour period and also important for those who train again less than 24 hours later (6, 7). Anyone who doesn’t train again less than 24 hours later can re-stock their carbohydrate in muscle by consuming enough carbohydrate in their diet from potatoes, rice, quinoa, and other higher carbohydrate foods.

You can function on fewer carbohydrates. However, “there is a difference between functioning and performing your best. Athletes and high-intensity sports to follow a low carbohydrate diet are more likely to get tired early and make mental errors,” states Hara. If you want to perform well and burn more calories while lowering risk of stomach upset, choose a traditional sports nutrition product instead of being swayed by the false marketing promises behind slow digesting carbohydrate products.

 

References

1 Jeukendrup AE, Killer SC. The myths surrounding pre-exercise carbohydrate feeding. Ann Nutr Metab 2010;57 Suppl 2:18-25.

2 Marmy-Conus N, Fabris S, Proietto J, Hargreaves M. Preexercise glucose ingestion and glucose kinetics during exercise. J Appl Physiol 1996;81:853-857.

3 Schultes B, Panknin A, Hallschmid M, Jauch-Chara K, Wilms B, de Courbiere F, Lehnert H, Schmid SM. Glycemic increase induced by intravenous glucose infusion fails to affect hunger, appetite, or satiety following breakfast in healthy men. Appetite 2016;105(1):562-566.

4 Roberts MD, Lockwood C, Dalbo VJ, Volek J, Kerksick CM. Ingestion of a high-molecular-weight hydrothermally modified waxy maize starch alters metabolic responses to prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. Nutr 2011;27(6):659-665.

5 Burdon CA, Spronk I, Cheng H, O’Connor HT. Effect of Glycemic Index of a Pre-exercise Meal on Endurance Exercise Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Sports Med 2016:1-15.

6 Stephens FB, Roig M, Armstrong G, Greenhaff PL. Post-exercise ingestion of a unique, high molecular weight glucose polymer solution improves performance during a subsequent bout of cycling exercise. J Sports Sci 2007:1-6.

7 Aulin KP, Soderlund K, Hultman F. Muscle glycogen resynthesis rate in humans after supplementation of drinks containing carbohydrates with low and high molecular masses. Eur J Appl Physiol 2000;81:346-351.

8 Bauer DA, Vargas F CS, Bach C, Garvey JA, Ormsbee MJ. Slow-Absorbing Modified Starch before and during prolonged cycling increases fat oxidation and gastrointestinal distress without changing performance. Nutrients 2016;8(392):1-16.

Sleep – a Critical Component to Sports Performance

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Years ago hitting the gym and throwing around some steel was considered the most critical aspect of sports performance training. However, in more recent years a more comprehensive model of performance has developed based on decades of research on nutrition, sleep, psychology and several other critical components of an athlete’s training regimen. As a sports dietitian with an Exercise Science degree and CSCS, I focus mainly on food & supplements though I sometimes discuss training. But lately I’ve found that I’m also talking about the importance of sleep with my athletes. This topic comes up once I realize they are too tired to plan and prepare their food. Days of sleep deprivation also leads to poor food choices. If an athlete is tired and hungry, caring about good nutrition will be thrown on the back burner while finding food fast becomes the main priority. Quick and cheap turns into a double cheeseburger with fries. And, aside from failing to implement all aspects of their nutrition plan, skimping on sleep also interferes with an athlete’s training and performance. Studies show chronic sleep deprivation leads to:

  • decreased sub max and maximal lifts in the weight room
  • delayed visual and auditory reaction time
  • slowed decision making
  • impaired motor functioning
  • reduced endurance
  • increased fatigue, decreased energy
  • exercise feels harder than it normally is (increased rating of perceived exertion)
  • less efficient glucose metabolism
  • reduced leptin and increased ghrelin
  • decreased growth hormone secretion
  • increased risk of injury
  • elevated cortisol levels which may interfere with tissue repair and growth
  • impaired insulin sensitivity in fat cells = more fat in your bloodstream (over time this may contribute to obesity, Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease).
  • decreased production of leptin, a protein produced in fat cells that tells your brain you have enough energy (fat) stored away so there’s no need to gorge yourself on food. Low leptin = you get hungry and eat.

According to research presented by Cheri Mah,a Stanford University sleep expert:

  • one night without sleep is the equivalent of being legally intoxicated
  • 4-5 hours of sleep for 4 days = 24 hours awake = legally intoxicated
  • 4-5 hours for 10 days = 48 hours awake

Mah’s 8 Strategies to Improve Sleep and Recovery:

  1. Adults should aim for 7-9 hours of sleep. Athletes need 8-10 hours of sleep (and getting in bed at 10 and waking up at 6 doesn’t mean you are getting a full 8 hours since it takes a while to actually fall asleep).
  2. Establish a consistent sleep schedule.
  3. Sleep like a caveman. It should be dark, quiet and cool. All electronics should be off and silent (or program in numbers for emergency calls only and set your phone for these emergency calls). All small lights on electronics should be covered up as these can interfere with sound sleep.
  4. Adults should only sleep when tired. If unable to sleep after 45 minutes, it is wise to get up and do a non-stimulating activity for 15 minutes (reading) then return to bed.
  5. Establish a 20-30 min routine before bed that includes non-stimulating activity. No computers, TVs or video games.
  6. Refrain from alcohol which impairs your sleep quality and fragments sleep preventing the deep sleep that is so critical for recovery (this is why people complain of being exhausted the day after they drink).
  7. Avoid heavy food, any foods that could cause heartburn, spicy foods etc.
  8. Take 20-30 minute power naps and pre-game naps (unless these interfere with the ability to sleep at night). Mah has found this improved alertness by 54%, improved performance by 34%

Matthew Edlund, M.D. takes it even further with the notion of morning people performing better during the day, night owls performing better at night, and both having to combat jet lag (each 1 hour time zone change takes a person 1 day to adjust; this is why West Coast teams beat East Coast NFL teams on Monday Nights). Check out Edlund’s article here. Sleep affects several aspects of training and performance (as well as body weight). Any athlete who wants to feel their best and reach peak performance should take a comprehensive approach to training which includes sound sleep habits.