Top 10 Flat Belly Foods

Tweet about this on TwitterPin on PinterestShare on LinkedInShare on Google+Share on FacebookBuffer this pageDigg thisEmail this to someoneFlattr the authorShare on StumbleUponShare on Reddit

Your abs are made in the gym and revealed in the kitchen. A good training program develops the muscles in your midsection and the right diet helps banish bloating so you can see your abs. Here are the 10 flat belly foods you should add to your diet for a better looking (and better feeling) mid-section):Greek yogurt for belly fat

Greek Yogurt with Live and Active Cultures

Look for Greek yogurt with “live cultures (aka good bacteria)” or the “Live & Active Cultures” seal. The cultures are good bacteria that take up valuable real estate in your gut, helping your body digest food and decreasing gas and bloating. The amount of healthy, versus harmful, bacteria influences body weight and how much weight you can lose while following a lower calorie diet. Plus, a study published in the International Journal of Obesity found people who get their calcium from yogurt, as opposed to other foods, may lose more weight in their belly. Even more evidence to support yogurt consumption comes from a study showing dieters who ate five servings of dairy, such as Greek yogurt, daily lost more weight and abdominal fat than those who ate just three servings every day. A more recent review of the research found higher dairy intake was associated with lower risk of obesity in the midsection and yogurt seems to help keep weight in check.

2 Nuts

Though nuts are relatively high in calories for a small amount of food,  people don’t gain weight when they add nuts to their previously nut-free diet. A study in over 13,000 adults revealed nut eaters, those who ate at least ¼ ounce of nuts or peanuts (technically a legume) per day had smaller waists than adults who didn’t eat nuts. Additionally, tree nuts and peanuts contain a considerable amount of monounsaturated fat. Dieters who eat more foods containing monounsaturated fats may lose more belly fat than those who eat the same number of calories per day with less monounsaturated fat.

3 Asparagus

When examining dietary patterns, weight and waist circumference in close to eighty thousand people over a 10-year period, researchers found those who ate more vegetables every day had both a lower BMI and smaller waistline compared to adults who ate few vegetables. Asparagus contains prebiotic fiber, a type of fiber that is food for the good bacteria in your gut. Plus, asparagus is a natural mild diuretic making it the perfect food before hitting the beach or wearing a more formfitting outfit.

4 Avocados

Avocados contain a good amount of monounsaturated fat, not to mention nineteen vitamins and minerals. But, their monounsaturated fat is the ticket to a smaller waistline. In one study scientists gave obese adults with type 2 diabetes diets rich in saturated fat, monounsaturated fat or  carbohydrates. Those on the high carbohydrate diet ended up with fat redistributed to their stomachs while the monounsaturated fat rich diet prevented fat redistribution to the belly area. Plus, a look at dietary intake data from close to 18,000 adults found body weight, BMI and waist size were all significantly lower in avocado consumers versus those who didn’t include avocados in their diet.

5 Popcorn

Popcorn is a whole grain and when you pop it yourself on the stovetop (or in a brown paper bag in the microwave, just add good old fashioned popcorn kernels in a brown paper bag and fold the top) and top it with a little spray butter or spices for flavor, you’ll end up with a snack that takes a long time to eat and fills you up on relatively few calories. In addition, several studies show people who eat about three servings of whole grains per day weight less and have a smaller waistline compared to those who don’t.

6 Cold Pea Salad

Peas are naturally rich in resistant starch, a type of fiber that isn’t completely broken down or absorbed during digestion. Cooking and cooling peas to make a pea salad will significantly increase the amount of resistant starch they content. Rodent studies show resistant starch helps reduce stomach fat and increase hormones that tell the brain it’s time to stop eating.

7 Eggs

Choose eggs over cereal in the morning and you’ll tame hunger pangs for hours after breakfast, decreasing the likelihood of overeating later in the day. Make a meal containing at least 25 – 30 total grams of protein (the protein is in the white of the egg so this equates to 4 – 5 egg whites though you can choose any combination of whole eggs and egg whites as long as you consume at least 4 -5 of the whites) so you can cash in on the satiety-enhancing benefits of eggs. Added bonus: following a high protein diet for a short period of time can lead to significant reductions in belly fat.

8 Green Tea

The combination of caffeine and antioxidants in green tea may lead to small to moderate reductions in body fat and waist size. However, you need to consume quite a bit of it so get creative and cook with green tea by brewing it and using it to cook rice (it’s particularly good with jasmine rice), make stews, soups or stocks. You can also poach fruit green tea or use dried green tea leaves as part of a rub for meats, tofu or fish.

9 Barley

Barley is a cereal grain with a nutty taste and consistency that is a cross between pasta and rice. In a double-blinded trial (both the men and the researchers didn’t know which food they were getting), Japanese men were given rice or a mixture of rice with pearl barley. The group receiving the pearl barley and rice mixture lost a significant amount of visceral fat, the kind that covers your organs like a thick winter blanket and increases risk of heart disease, stroke and type-2 diabetes. Compared to the rice only group, the group who ate pearl barley decreased their waist size.

10 Blueberries

Blueberries are an excellent source of dietary fiber, which will not only help keep you full but also help keep your waistline in check. Plus they are a natural source of prebiotic fiber – the kind that the good bacteria in your gut munch on.

A flat belly is one of the most recognized signs of a fit body. Blast away abdominal fat with high-intensity cardio and build the underlying muscle by regularly switching up your training program. Also, incorporate a 30-minute abs classes to your routine. At least one study found you can spot reduce if you exercise the same muscle group for at least 30 minutes at a time. Keep in mind abs are made in the gym but revealed in the kitchen. Add the top 10 flat belly foods to your diet while cutting down on sugar alcohols (sorbitol, maltitol, and mannitol are the worst for causing gas and bloating), fizzy drinks and chewing gum (all of these can increase bloating at least temporarily) and you may fall in love with skinny jeans.

 

References
Clifton PM, Bastiaans K, Keogh JB. High protein diets decrease total and abdominal fat and improve CVD risk profile in overweight and obese men and women with elevated triacylglycerol. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2009;19(8):548-54.

O’Neil CE1, Keast DR, Nicklas TA, Fulgoni VL 3rd. Nut consumption is associated with decreased health risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome in U.S. adults: NHANES 1999-2004. J Am Coll Nutr 2011;30(6):502-10.

Kahn HS, Tatham LM, Rodriguez C, et al. Stable behaviors associated with adults’ 10-year change in the body mass index and likelihood of gain at waist. Am J Public Health 1997;87:747-54.

Ridaura VK, Faith JJ, Rey FE, Cheng J, Duncan AE et al. Gut microbiota from twins discordant for obesity modulate metabolism in mice. Science 2013;341:6150.

Turnbaugh PJ, Ley RE, Mahowald MA, Magrini V et al. An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest. Nature 2006;444:1027-1031.

Vidrine K, Ye J, Martin RJ, McCutcheon KL et al. Resistant starch from high amylose maize (HAM-RS2) and dietary butyrate reduce abdominal fat by a different apparent mechanism. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2014;22(2):344-8.

Bisanz JE, Reid G. Unraveling how probiotic yogurt works. Sci Transl Med 2011;3:106.

Dhurandhar NV, Geurts L, Atkinson RL et al. Harnessing the beneficial properties of adipogenic microbes for improving human health. Obesity Reviews 2013;19:721-735.

Delzenne NM, Neyrinck AM, Bäckhed F, Cani PD. Targeting gut microbiota in obesity: effects of prebiotics and probiotics. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2011;7(11):639-46.

Furet JP, Kong LC, Tap J et al. Differential adaptation of human gut microbiota to bariatric surgery-induced weight loss: links with metabolic and low-grade inflammation markers. Diabetes 2010;59:3049-3057.

Ley RE, Turnbaugh PJ, Klein S, Gordon JI. Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature 2006;444: 1022–1023.

Santacruz A, Marcos A, Warnberg J et al. Interplay Between Weight Loss and Gut Microbiota Composition in Overweight Adolescents. Obesity 2009;17:1906–1915.

Harland JI, Garton LE. Whole-grain intake as a marker of healthy body weight and adiposity. Public Health Nutr 2008;11(6):554-63.

Yadav BS, Sharma A, Yadav RB. Studies on effect of multiple heating/cooling cycles on the resistant starch formation in cereals, legumes and tubers. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2009;60 Suppl 4:258-72.

Keenan MJ, Zhou J, McCutcheon KL et al. Effects of resistant starch, a non-digestible fermentable fiber, on reducing body fat. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2006;14(9):1523-34.

Nagao T, Komine Y, Soga S et al. Ingestion of a tea rich in catechins leads to a reduction in body fat and malondialdehyde-modified LDL in men. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81(1):122-9.

Paniagua JA, Gallego de la Sacristana A, Romero I et al. Monounsaturated fat-rich diet prevents central body fat distribution and decreases postprandial adiponectin expression induced by a carbohydrate-rich diet in insulin-resistant subjects. Diabetes Care 2007;30(7):1717-23.

Fulgoni VL 3rd, Dreher M, Davenport AJ. Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2008. Nutr J 2013;12:1.

Shimizu C, Kihara M, Aoe S et al. Effect of high beta-glucan barley on serum cholesterol concentrations and visceral fat area in Japanese men–a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2008;63(1):21-5.

Du H, van der A DL, Boshuizen HC et al. Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91(2):329-36.

Peters EM, Anderson R, Nieman DC, et al. Vitamin C supplementation attenuates the increases in circulating cortisol, adrenaline and anti-inflammatory polypeptides following ultramarathon running. Int J Sports Med 2001;22(7):537-43.

 

The Ketogenic Diet Craze: Fat-Filled Lies, Part 1

Tweet about this on TwitterPin on PinterestShare on LinkedInShare on Google+Share on FacebookBuffer this pageDigg thisEmail this to someoneFlattr the authorShare on StumbleUponShare on Reddit

ketogenic diPicture this: a thick, juicy, tender eventeak grilled to perfection with melted butter glazed on top, gently dripping down the sides. Lying next to the steak there’s a side of dark green asparagus sautéed in coconut oil and dusted with a sprinkle of sea salt. Could a diet loaded with fat help you lose diet-resistant body fat that’s been taunting the seams of your dress pants and poking through buttons on your shirt? Will eating fat turn you into an all-star athlete? This is part 1 of a 2 part series on the ketogenic diet.

Here is what I will cover in this blog post:

  • What is the ketogenic diet?
  • Adverse health effects.

Here is what I will cover in tomorrow’s blog on this topic:

  • The issue with ketogenic research studies.
  • Is the ketogenic diet superior for losing fat?
  • How will the ketogenic diet affect muscle?
  • How will the ketogenic diet impact athletic performance?

What is the Ketogenic Diet?

For nearly a century, epileptic patients have used ketogenic diets to control seizures when common medications provide no relief. Scientists aren’t sure why following a ketogenic diet decreases the incidence and severity of seizures but it works.

The ketogenic diet contains – 80-90% of calories from fat, 15% from protein and 5% from carbohydrate (1, 2). Food choices may include heavy cream, bacon, eggs, non-starchy vegetables, mayonnaise and sausage while fruits, starchy vegetables, breads, pasta, cereal and other carbohydrate-rich foods are not allowed.

During the first several days on a ketogenic diet, your body’s limited supply of carbohydrate stored in liver and muscle tissue decreases dramatically. As a result, you will feel like you have mono – exhausted, with headaches and easy exercise will feel like you’re climbing Mount Everest (3). Once your stored carbohydrate has dwindled, ketones, formed from the breakdown of dietary fat, become the primary source of energy for brain and body. Ketogenic means “ketone forming.” It takes at least seven days to reach nutritional ketosis and several weeks to fully adapt to the diet (12). If you aren’t in nutritional ketosis (as measured by blood, urine or breath ketones; ketone levels > 0.5 mmol/L), then you aren’t following a ketogenic diet, you are on a low carbohydrate diet.

Adverse Health Effects from the Ketogenic Diet

Much of the research on adverse effects comes from studies in epileptic children since they have been on the diet for long periods of time. These studies show soon after starting a ketogenic diet, blood cholesterol levels and artery stiffness increase (4, 5). High total and LDL cholesterol are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (diseases of the heart and blood vessels). When arteries are stiff, they cannot expand as well in response to changes in blood pressure. Think of this like a garden hose when you turn up the water pressure, your hose either expands or the water bursts out of the space between the faucet and the hose. When arteries cannot open widely to accommodate increases in blood flow, blood pressure increases leading to microscopic tears on artery walls, development of scar tissue and the perfect surface for plaque buildup (6). Blood cholesterol levels returned to normal in patients who went off the diet and in those who stayed on it, they returned to normal after 6 to 12 months. Artery stiffness returned to normal after 24 months on a ketogenic diet.5 Studies in obese patients suggest ketogenic diets improve blood sugar and blood cholesterol levels over time, either due to the diet, weight loss from the diet, a combination of the two or carbohydrate restriction (7, 8). Lose weight, regardless of what you eat and blood cholesterol, blood pressure, inflammation, blood sugar and many other disease risk factors will improve.

Ketogenic diets are typically low in calcium, vitamin D, potassium, magnesium, folic acid and fiber. There are several potential consequences associated with consistently low intake of each of these micronutrients including softening of the bones, decreased bone density, muscle damage, muscle weakness or spasms, and abnormal heart rhythm. However, with careful planning, a fiber supplement, multivitamin and under the guidance of a physician who may prescribe potassium and sodium supplements (blood sodium could drop to dangerously low levels while on this diet), nutrient needs can be met. Also, to prevent constipation when on a ketogenic diet, a fiber supplement may be necessary along with more water / fluid intake then you are used to.

Here are some other potentially bad side effects from following a high fat diet:

  • Harm to your Brain. Studies in mice show a high fat diet, even when followed for as little as two months leads to chronic inflammation, sedentary immune cells in the brain – these cells typically act like janitors picking up trash and infectious compounds but when they become sedentary they stop doing their job, leading to cognitive impairment (9). Does this happen in humans and resolve over time? We don’t know.
  • Mad Bacteria in Your Gut. A diet with no probiotics (healthy bacteria) and low in prebiotics (certain types of fiber that the healthy bacteria much on for food keeping them happy) will likely change the composition of bacteria in your gut so you have more harmful and less beneficial bacteria.
  • Leaky Gut. High saturated fat meals increase bacterial toxins (endotoxins) in the intestines and intestinal permeability. In other words: leaky gut (10, 11). If you are on this diet, consider opting for foods lower in saturated fat and higher in unsaturated fats (liquid oils, avocado, nuts, seeds, olives).
  • Free radicals in overdrive? If you can’t eat a number of colorful foods including blueberries, beets, corn, oranges, and more, chances are you won’t get a wide array of antioxidant compounds to quench free radicals (compounds that are important for good health but can wreck your body when they aren’t tamed by antioxidants) as well as other plant-based compounds that keep your arteries, muscles and other parts of your body healthy. Will your body adapt? We don’t know at this time.

Are the side effects and potential negative side effects worth it if you can lose weight on this diet? Stay tuned for tomorrow’s post on how the ketogenic diet impacts body fat and athletic performance.

References

1 Freeman JM, Freeman JB, Kelly MT. The ketogenic diet: a treatment for epilepsy. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Demos Health; 2000.

2 Paoli A, Bianco A, Damiani E, Bosco G. Ketogenic Diet in Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases. BioMed Research International 2014, Article ID 474296, 10 pages, 2014.

3 White AM, Johnston CS, Swan PD et al. Blood ketones are directly related to fatigue and perceived effort during exercise in overweight adults adhering to low-carbohydrate diets for weight loss: a pilot study. J Am Diet Assoc 2007;107(10):1792-6.

4 Tanakis M, Liuba P, Odermarsky M, Lundgren J, Hallböök T. Effects of ketogenic diet on vascular function. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2014;18(4):489-94.

5 Coppola G, Natale F, Torino A et al. The impact of the ketogenic diet on arterial morphology and endothelial function in children and young adults with epilepsy: a case-control study. Seizure 2014;23(4):260-5.

6 Cecelja M, Chowienczyk P. Role of arterial stiffness in cardiovascular disease. JRSM Cardiovascular Disease 2012;1(4):1-10.

7 Dashti HM, Mathew TC, Hussein T, Asfar SK, Behbahani A, Khoursheed MA, Al-Sayer HM, Bo-Abbas YY, Al-Zaid NS. Long-term effects of a ketogenic diet in obese patients. Exp Clin Cardiol 2004; 9(3): 200–205.

8 Volek JS, Feinman RD. Carbohydrate restriction improves the features of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome may be defined by the response to carbohydrate restriction. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2005;2:31.

9 Hao S, Dey A, Yu X, Stranahan AM. Dietary obesity reversibly induces synaptic stripping by microglia and impairs hippocampal plasticity. Brain Behav Immun 2016 Jan;51:230-9.

10 Mani V, Hollis JH, Gabler NK. Dietary oil composition differentially modulates intestinal endotoxin transport and postprandial endotoxemia. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2013; 10: 6.

11 Lam YY, Ha CW, Campbell CR, Mitchell AJ, Dinudom A, Oscarsson J, Cook DI, Hunt NH, Caterson ID, Holmes AJ, Storlien LH. Increased gut permeability and microbiota change associate with mesenteric fat inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in diet-induced obese mice. PLoS One 2012;7(3):e34233.

12 Paoli, A, Grimaldi K, D’Agostino D, Cenci L, Moro T, Bianco A, Palma A. Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2012;9:34.

Full Fat or Low Fat Dairy?

Tweet about this on TwitterPin on PinterestShare on LinkedInShare on Google+Share on FacebookBuffer this pageDigg thisEmail this to someoneFlattr the authorShare on StumbleUponShare on Reddit

If you are totally against low-fat dairy, it’s time to take a closer look at the research. After listening to this dairy debate and watching the finger pointing, I started searching through the literature for an answer to this question “does dairy fat increase LDL cholesterol and risk for cardiovascular disease?” Then I came to my senses. No one eats dairy fat. Unless you’re a food scientist, you aren’t separating the fat from milk or full-fat yogurt and eating it or adding it as an ingredient to your recipes. However, we do eat cheese and yogurt and drink milk. The array of compounds in each of these foods influences how they affect your cholesterol and risk for heart disease. So, I revised the question to: “how does full fat cheese, yogurt and milk impact cholesterol and risk for heart disease?”

Here’s what I’ll cover in this article:

  • Why people are up in arms about saturated fat – saying it is either good or bad;
  • How does full fat cheese, yogurt and milk impact cholesterol;
  • What should you do with this information?

Dairy Fat isn’t the Only Factor

The research on dairy generally follows the research on saturated fat: the replacement strategy matters. For instance, it isn’t a good idea to take cheese out of your diet and replace it with a highly refined carbohydrate (not a good move for blood fats). Butter isn’t better than liquid oil. Butter raises LDL cholesterol. Some research suggests dairy fat might raise the large, less artery clogging LDL cholesterol compared to small dense LDL. However, “less artery clogging” does not mean “not artery clogging” and this area of the science needs more work before we can draw firm conclusions. Also, there are a few differences based on the type of food (milk, cheese, yogurt, butter); aged cheese reigns.

dairy and cheddar cheese

-> Aged cheese does not raise LDL as much as butter (accounting for total fat in each). In fact, several studies show aged cheese appears to have a “relatively minor” impact on LDL cholesterol or no impact at all. This could be due to the calcium content, which leads to the excretion of some fat or, fermentation may have an effect. Aged cheese stands out in the research.

-> Yogurt appears to have less of a cholesterol raising effect than expected. However this research is inconsistent possibly due to differences in the type of bacteria in the yogurt (aka probiotics). I recommend choosing yogurt with “live and active cultures.”

– > Milk – when consuming the same amount of fat from whole milk or butter, both raise LDL to the same extent. Milk contributes substantially less total fat per amount consumed compared to full fat yogurt and butter. Cross-sectional studies suggest milk consumption doesn’t raise coronary artery disease risk, however, this may reflect lower total fat intake from milk compared to butter.

-> Cottage cheese –  this incredible food is oftentimes forgotten yet an excellent addition to your diet. I couldn’t find any studies on cottage cheese, however, the highest fat cottage cheese I could find  (4% milk fat) contained 5 g total fat per serving so we can expect the impact cottage cheese may have a lower impact compared to whole milk.

What Should You Do with this Information?

If your LDL is high, choose skim, 1% or low fat milk. Opt for a good quality yogurt with naturally occurring probiotics. As far as cheese goes – I’d take out all of the other offending foods and work on other aspects of heart health before ditching the cheese (unless your LDL is very high) and cottage cheese. However, always follow the dietary advice of your registered dietitian since there are many variables that should be taken into consideration.

What about the trans fats in dairy? They are good for you right? No. In large amounts, the trans fats in dairy have the same impact as those found in partially hydrogenated oil (not good for cholesterol, cardiovascular disease risk etc.). However, we don’t eat dairy trans fats in significant quantities (they make up very tiny amounts of dairy fat and beef fat).

Take Home Points

In general, dairy foods help lower blood pressure plus there is emerging evidence about the positive role dairy foods may play in metabolic syndrome. What about dairy fat? Consider the whole food and your diet overall so you can make the right choices based on your personal risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Also, keep in mind there are many factors that influence cardiovascular disease pathology, some of which are unrelated to cholesterol.

References

Tholstrup T, Hoy CE, Andersen LN, Christensen RD, Sandstrom B. Does fat in milk, butter and cheese affect blood lipids and cholesterol differently? J Am Coll Nutr 2004;23:169–76.

Hjerpsted J, Leedo E, Tholstrup T. Cheese intake in large amounts lowers LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared with butter intake of equal fat content. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;94:1479–84.

Biong AS, Muller H, Seljeflot I, Veierod MB, Pedersen JI. A comparison of the effects of cheese and butter on serum lipids, haemostatic variables and homocysteine. Br J Nutr 2004;92:791–7.

Nestel P. Effects of Dairy Fats within Different Foods on Plasma Lipids. J Am Coll Clin Nutr 2008, 27(6): 735S–740S.

Thorning TK et al. Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2015.

Labonté MÈ et al. Dairy product consumption has no impact on biomarkers of inflammation among men and women with low-grade systemic inflammation. J Nutr 2014;144(11):1760-7.

Sjogren P et al. Milk-derived fatty acids are associated with a more favorable LDL particle size distribution in healthy men. J Nutr 2004;134(7):1729-35.

Hodson L, Skeaff CM, Chisholm WA. The effect of replacing dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat on plasma lipids in free-living young adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001; 55(10):908-15

Soerensen KV et al. Effect of dairy calcium from cheese and milk on fecal fat excretion, blood lipids, and appetite in young men. Am J Clin Nutr 2014;99(5):984-91.

Grebe A, Latz E. Cholesterol crystals and inflammation. Curr Rheumatol Rep 2013;15(3):313.

 

 

Electrolytes That Will Help You Stay Hydrated & Perform Better

Tweet about this on TwitterPin on PinterestShare on LinkedInShare on Google+Share on FacebookBuffer this pageDigg thisEmail this to someoneFlattr the authorShare on StumbleUponShare on Reddit

tennis athleteElectrolytes are minerals that help you stay hydrated, regulate nerve functioning, and influence muscle contraction and relaxation. Any electrolyte disturbance can potentially hinder athletic performance and may lead to muscle weakness, muscle twitching, dehydration, and cramping.

Sodium and chloride (together they make table salt) are the major electrolytes lost through sweat followed by smaller amounts of potassium, calcium, and magnesium. Sodium is the primary electrolyte that needs replacing during exercise. In a healthy individual, blood potassium is well regulated. Also, supplemental potassium in high doses can be very dangerous therefore, while some electrolyte replacement products provide a tiny bit of potassium, this isn’t an essential ingredient.

Sweat sodium losses vary tremendously between athletes with reported losses ranging from the amount in a “pinch” of salt (0.2 grams of sodium) per liter (1 liter = 4.23 cups) of sweat to over 12.5 grams of sodium per liter (12.5 grams of sodium is the amount in 5.4 teaspoons of salt) of sweat. Sweat sodium losses are dependent on an athlete’s dietary sodium intake, sweat rate, adaptation to heat, and rehydration source (and how much sodium their during exercise beverage contains).

Hydrating with water alone can help prevent over-heating, though sodium helps your body hold onto the fluid you drink. In fact, relying solely on water and drinking tons of water (let’s say you only rehydrate with water during a four hour marathon) can dilute blood sodium levels and contribute to hyponatremia (dangerously low blood sodium that can result in muscle weakness spasms or cramps,  headache or confusion, low energy and at worst, brain swelling, seizure and coma). Drink tons of water after exercise to rehydrate and you’ll pee a good bit of it right back out. Popular sports drinks typically provide varying amounts of electrolytes though some athletes may need to add sodium to their sports drink to fully replace sodium lost through sweat.

If you find that you need more sodium, start by adding 50 – 100 mg for every 8 oz. of fluid. So for instance, mix ½ packet Gatorlytes into a 32 oz. bottle of Gatorade or PowerAde (or similar sports drink).

Electrolyte Comparison Chart

Product, Rating, Description Bottom Line
Gatorlytes   ****
1 packet; powder
– Mix in any amount of water or other beverages
– No calories– Sodium: 780 mg
– Potassium: 400 mg
– Magnesium: 40 mg
Easily mixes into any beverage; good amount of sodium and you can use part of a package if you want a partial serving.

 

Generation UCAN Hydrate  **
1 packet; powder
– Mix in 16 – 20 oz. water
– No calories
-Lemon lime flavor
-Sweetened with Stevia -Sodium: 300 mg
-Potassium: 100 mg
-Magnesium: 50 mg
-Calcium: 15 mg
Already flavored so this can only be mixed with water. Best for the very light sweater – one who doesn’t sweat much or lose much sodium through sweat.

 

Not for serious athletes.

Hammer Endurolytes   *
2 electrolyte capsules
-Swallow capsules or open & mix in a drink
-Contains glycine to help neutralize the salty taste

-Sodium: 80 mg
-Potassium: 50 mg
-Magnesium: 50 mg
-Calcium: 100 mg

Low in sodium for an electrolyte product. Many athletes would need several capsules.

 

-Xylitol is a common ingredient in Hammer products, which like all sugar alcohols, has the potential cause GI problems

Infinit Nutrition :Speed < 3 hours  ****
1 packet :Speed < 3 hours
– 230 calories
– 55 g carbohydrate from maltodextrin and dextrose

-Sodium: 325 mg
-Potassium: 94 mg
-Magnesium: 5 mg
-Calcium: 3 mg

Good for the athlete who is looking for a sports drink with sodium.

 

Many athletes, especially those who are heavy sweaters or salty sweaters, will need to add additional sodium.

Klean Electrolytes   *
1 electrolyte capsuleThey recommend taking 1 – 3 capsules, depending on sweat rate, weight, and activity duration.

-Sodium: 40 mg
-Potassium: 25 mg
-Magnesium: 25 mg
-Calcium: 25 mg

Relatively low in sodium for an electrolyte supplement.
MyProtein  ****
-flavored Electrolyte powder

-Chloride: 320 mg
-Sodium: 210 mg

This is table salt (exact same ratio of chloride and sodium) with potassium sulfate, calcium di phosphate and magnesium added (it isn’t clear how much is added).
NUUN   *
Electrolyte tablets (12 per tube)
Comes in 3 drink options:1 NUUN Active Hydration Tablet
-Sodium: 360 mg
-Potassium: 100 mg
-Magnesium: 25 mg
-Calcium: 13 mg

NUUN All Day Hydration
– Sodium: 60 mg
– Potassium: 200 mg
– Magnesium: 20 mg
– Calcium: 0 mg

NUUN U Natural Hydration
– Sodium: 180 mg
– Potassium: 77 mg
– Magnesium: 20 mg
– Calcium: 0 mg

NUUN Active Hydration contains sorbitol which is a sugar alcohol that may cause GI (stomach) distress (sorbitol is one of the 2 worst ones for stomach uspet)

 

NUUN’s U natural hydration uses Stevia instead of sorbitol

 

 

Skratch Exercise Hydration mix   ***

Electrolyte mix that can be added into any drink
– 80 calories; 20 grams carbohydrate
– Uses fruit
– No artificial flavors or colors

1 scoop (20 gm) Lemons and Limes Skratch exercise hydration mix:

-Sodium: 240 mg
-Potassium: 40 mg
-Magnesium: 24 mg
-Calcium: 10 mg

As a powder this can be modified to fit a person’s individual needs. It contains carbohydrate though and therefore it may deliver too many carbs at a time when combined with a sports drink or other calorie-containing beverage. Too many carbs at a time = stomach upset.
The Right Stuff   ***

20 ml liquid electrolyte replacement designed as a pre-exercise hyperhydrator (to expand plasma volume via sodium fluid load)

-Liquid form
-Sweetened with Splenda

-Sodium: 1,780 mg
-Chloride: 1,379 mg
-Citrate: 2,953 mg

Good option for “heavy sweaters” or athletes exercising in hot and humid environments (due to its high sodium content). However, there is nothing to suggest The Right Stuff is better than other electrolyte products when equating for sodium content or, in the case of rehydration, other factors that may contribute to fluid balance including macronutrients (fat, protein, carbs).

The research listed on their website is less than impressive since most studies compared The Right Stuff against low and no sodium conditions (the studies were not designed to truly test The Right Stuff but instead make the product look good).
In one well-designed study, that included seven total beverages. Two contained the same amount of sodium, beverages 3 & 4 (The Right Stuff). Oddly beverage 3 is missing from the results data. Also, The Right Stuff didn’t fare better than a lower sodium beverage for improving hydration status after dehydration (technically termed hypohydration). Reference below:

Greenleaf et al. Vascular Uptake of Rehydration Fluids in Hypohydrated Men at Rest and Exercise. NASA Technical Memorandum. August 1992.

Pros and Cons of Grain Brain, Wheat Belly and the Paleo Diet

Tweet about this on TwitterPin on PinterestShare on LinkedInShare on Google+Share on FacebookBuffer this pageDigg thisEmail this to someoneFlattr the authorShare on StumbleUponShare on Reddit

Diet books are tempting. They tell you the reason you’re overweight, what foods are “toxic” and how to get rid of them while strolling down the yellow brick road to lasting weight loss and good health. But there’s one main issue – many of these books aren’t based on scientific evidence but instead theories that are pulled out of thin air. “But my neighbor lost 50 lbs. following Paleo!” Well your neighbor cut out potato chips, beer and fried food in the process so of course he lost weight. The Paleo diet just gave him a convincing (even if scientifically inaccurate) reason to cut these foods out.

All of these diets have some pros and cons which I expand upon in this TV segment I did for Fox 5 and below the video:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KQyfQ5hf_Qc&feature=youtu.be

Gluten is a protein formed from other proteins (gliadins and glutenins; any single wheat plant may produce > 100 gliadins and > 50 glutenins) naturally found in wheat foods when wheat flour is mixed with water (the mechanical action of mixing plus the water are necessary). Other proteins that are similar to gluten are found in barley (hordiens) and rye (secalins). Gluten gives dough it’s tough elastic structure and contributes to the light and fluffy texture of baked goods. If it sounds complex, it is but here are the important points:

  • Wheat today doesn’t have more gluten (or create more gluten when mixed with water) than varieties from 70 years ago unless the manufacturer adds vital wheat gluten back to the food itself (J Plant Reg 2012;6(1)).
  • Wheat breeding is complex and focuses on creating varieties of wheat that meet what food makers and consumers are looking for – a flaky pie crust or nice soft wheat bread for instance.
  • Gluten isn’t an easy to digest protein (there are many foods we eat that are not completely broken down) but, this isn’t a problem for most people – only those with celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (which might not be due to gluten alone but instead FODMAPs).

Paleo: What You Need to Know

The Paleo diet is based on one main principle: if we eat like our hunter-gatherer ancestors who lived between 2.6 million to 10,000 years ago, before the start of the agricultural revolution, we will avoid modern diseases such as heart disease as well as infections.

This diet is based on grass-produced meats, fish/seafood, fresh fruits and vegetables, eggs, nuts and seeds and “healthful” oils. Everything else is off limits.

Paleo’s Glaring Oversights:

  • there was no one single Paleo diet – diets varied based on region and time period (check out Christina Warinner’s TED talk on this)
  • In several regions, well over 10,000 years ago and possibly even a few million years ago, people ate grains and legumes.
  • Examination of mummies tells us that all people from this time period had clogged arteries.
  • The fruits, vegetables and meats we have today look nothing like what our ancestors ate (ex: fruit were small, tough and bitter).
  • Our ancestors hunted and gathered food – in other words, their daily lives included physical activity (both strength training which builds muscle and bone and aerobic exercise).

Paleo – What’s Good:

  • The Paleo diet cuts out our top sources of calories in the US including alcohol, desserts and sugar sweetened beverages.
  • It’s loaded with protein which will keep you full for a longer period of time after eating and help you build muscle.
  • Plenty of fruits and vegetables!

Paleo – What’s Bad:

  • No legumes (peas, beans, lentils and peanuts) – legumes are rich in fiber, potassium, magnesium (some), iron (some), antioxidants and more.
  • No grains. Grains provide a good bit of the fiber in the average American diet in addition to folate, other vitamins and antioxidants.
  • No dairy – our top source of bone building calcium and vitamin D. Now, I know what some self proclaimed nutrition experts will say here – people in Africa (or insert other country here) don’t consume much calcium and they don’t have as many cases of osteoporosis as we do in the U.S. Go to Africa, conduct dietary recalls (to see what they are indeed eating) and then follow a group of women around for several days. The women I met from Africa a few years ago were big and strong thanks to farm work (in their particular country the women do all the farming). They walked (far) with buckets of water on their head daily (fantastic way to build bone density in the spine!). I don’t know any females in the U.S. who get near the bone building activity these women are getting on a daily basis. So, this is far from a valid comparison. (SN: I haven’t even bothered to research the incidence of osteoporosis here vs. Africa because I’d be comparing a largely sedentary desk-sitting population to one with different genetics that also gets bone building activity for hours each day).

Diet magic? Follow anything that makes you cut calories and you’ll lose weight. Eat more protein and you’ll tend to lose more fat than muscle.

Post-Workout Power Smoothie

Tweet about this on TwitterPin on PinterestShare on LinkedInShare on Google+Share on FacebookBuffer this pageDigg thisEmail this to someoneFlattr the authorShare on StumbleUponShare on Reddit

Many people eat the same 25-30 foods each week. And, one of my favorites is this super easy post-workout smoothie. I typically don’t feel like eating right away after training but know that I have a 30 minute window of opportunity to replace the carbohydrate stores in my muscle tissue (glycogen) and boost muscle growth and repair.

So, I created this shake with tasty, functional ingredients that refuel my body, build and repair muscle and provide antioxidants to help tame muscle tissue inflammation. Here are the ingredients and the benefits each one provides below the recipe:

Power Smoothie

Ingredients

  • 8 oz milk (whole if you need to gain weight, otherwise choose skim, 1 or 2%)
  • 1 scoop protein powder (containing at least 20 grams whey protein)
  • 3-4 chunks of frozen mango
  • 1/3 cup frozen mixed berries
  • ginger root, shaved (if you don’t shave it you may break a cheap blender 😉

Directions

Mix, add ice if desired.

Rationale for each ingredient:

  • milk – calcium, vitamin D & magnesium all play roles in muscle functioning and bone health; plus milk is a great source of quality protein
  • protein powder – whey contains the optimal amount of specific amino acids you need for muscle tissue growth and repair
  • mango – in addition to making your shake thick like a milkshake, mango may help combat inflammation
  • red, blue and purple berries contain antioxidant flavonoids that may attenuate inflammation, limit tissue breakdown and improve circulation while promoting a nice strong collagen matrix
  • ginger –  research out of the University of Georgia found that 2 grams of ginger per day can help reduce exercise-induced muscle pain.
Looking for more great Summertime beverages? Check these recipes out from my colleagues:

Best Weight Loss Program: Weight Watchers

Tweet about this on TwitterPin on PinterestShare on LinkedInShare on Google+Share on FacebookBuffer this pageDigg thisEmail this to someoneFlattr the authorShare on StumbleUponShare on Reddit

The absolute best way to lose weight is to get a customized nutrition program from a Registered Dietitian who specializes in both weight loss and whatever else you need help with (PCOS, kidney disease, PKU, diabetes, sports nutrition etc. – there are a number of specialty areas) and combine that with a good training program that meets your current state of health and physical capacity.  However, for a multitude of reasons, some people like what I call Canned Weight Loss Programs. Programs that work with the masses and give a one size fits all approach. And, there’s nothing wrong with this but, you should go into it knowing what to expect.

Programs that give you meals like Nutrisystem, work if you follow them.  And, they take the guesswork out of dieting if you just want to lose weight asap without having to put any thought into it. These programs are fantastic for busy people on the go but those who need variety may get sick of the meal options sooner rather than later. Nutrisystem like programs get you used to appropriate portion sizes but, they do not teach you how to pick and choose and put together your own meals.  And while that sounds easy, it is typically where people fail.  They fail to plan and end up making poor choices because they are hungry and have no food with them or come home and can’t figure out what to make for dinner.

As a professional who has worked with many clients who are on Weight Watchers, I feel this is one of the better, more sound dieting approaches out there.  While you count points (which are determined based on calories, fiber and fat in food) versus calories, you’ll get used to sticking within a basic calorie budget with some room for those days you go out to eat, hit a party etc. (each person gets 35 extra points per week). And, aside from learning portion sizes and re-training yourself with how much food you should be eating in a given day, Weight Watchers forces you to plan at least some of your meals.  When you choose a higher calorie breakfast, you’ll start thinking about how many points you have left and what you should eat for lunch and dinner to stay within your point allotment.

Like all canned programs, Weight Watchers falls short in a few areas. First, you are only required to eat 2 dairy per day. In a world where many people have blood levels of vitamin D that are deficient or insufficient and we aren’t consuming enough of this vitamin:  55% and 68% of U.S. men and women aged 31-50 consume below the Adequate intake for vitamin D, 2 dairy just aren’t enough. In addition to making it more difficult to get vitamin D, dairy is your best bet for getting calcium and 42% and 67% of U.S. men and women consume less than the Adequate intake for calcium*.  Secondly, Weight Watchers encourages a high fiber (good), higher carbohydrate diet. Many women I’ve met with are falling short on protein and healthy fats on this diet. And, high carbohydrate (even if you cut calories) just doesn’t work well for some people especially those with blood glucose issues, PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) or insulin resistance. Anyone who fits in one of these categories needs an individual tailored program that manages their blood sugar levels.

For a Canned Diet Program, Nutrisystem works, Jenny Craig works, and Weight Watchers works and teaches you something about portion sizes in a supportive group environment. But, if you choose Weight Watchers, know ahead of time you are very likely to fall short on both vitamin D and calcium (a multivitamin will not make up for the calcium shortfall and in many people it won’t help your vitamin D levels too much either) and if you have PCOS, insulin resistance, pre-diabetes, diabetes or any blood sugar abnormalities, I do not recommend Weight Watchers. Instead, talk to a dietitian who specializes in weight loss and these issues. It’s worth the time and cost – you’ll end up less frustrated and with a better chance of being successful.

*NHANES data 2005-2006.

What Most Women are Missing from Their Diet

Tweet about this on TwitterPin on PinterestShare on LinkedInShare on Google+Share on FacebookBuffer this pageDigg thisEmail this to someoneFlattr the authorShare on StumbleUponShare on Reddit

I love playing detective and sitting down with clients and figuring out what their diet is missing, what they are consuming too much of and helping them shift their food and supplement intake to meet their goals. But when it comes to women, I can sit down, look at their 3-day diet record and over 90% of the time I see the same pattern. Athletes or non-athletes, most of these women fall short on the following nutrients: protein, heart-healthy fats, calcium, vitamin D and iron.

  • Protein – why are women short on protein? Because many prefer carbohydrates, sweets and pre-packaged carb snacks. And I am right there with them.  I’d rather eat good bread than poultry, meat, fish or a pseudo-meat product. But I know better. I know that too much carbohydrate at one meal is the surest route to falling asleep on my keyboard. And if I want to keep every ounce of muscle tissue I have and gain strength, protein at every meal is a must. Plus, protein keeps you full for a longer period of time. So what do you do if you tend to fall into the carbo-lovers category? Find protein foods you like and try new dishes. I know what protein-rich foods I like and I stick with them and keep them in my refrigerator and freezer. Plus, I consume good quantities of whey protein. Its convenient, portable and one of the best types for athletes or those women who are training.
  • Fat – there seems to be some fat-phobia left over from the 90s or possibly the calorie-rationing theory at work here. Calorie -rationing (aka points rationing for those  on Weight Watchers) works like this: “I have 200 calories I can eat at this snack so rather than blow it on a tiny serving of nuts, I’ll consume crackers or a bagel.” Skimp on fat and you’ll end up hungry with dry skin. Plus good fats are necessary for the absorption of fat soluble vitamins, hormone production, a healthy brain, heart, and keeping inflammation at bay. Nuts, seeds, nut butters, fatty fish, oils – are all great choices.
  • Calcium & Vitamin D – take one look at my fridge and you’ll see dairy in every form possible – cheese, milk, yogurt, Greek yogurt… I have yet to hear  a valid reason for skimping on dairy intake. Milk is basically the star of vitamin D (unless you want to bake in the sun without sunscreen – great recipe for bad skin).  If you want calcium and vitamin D (and trust me, you do), consume milk, milk products fortified with vitamin D or whey shakes with D and calcium. If you don’t, go get your vitamin D tested asap (especially if your skin is dark, you use sunscreen or you are over the age of 60).
  • Iron – Yes, leafy greens contain iron. So does my all time favorite cereal – cream of wheat. But, you won’t absorb much iron from plant foods, grains etc. (the iron is a different form than the kind in meat).  If you like red meat, eat it once a week. If not, choose dark turkey or chicken every once in a while. If you are a vegetarian, (especially a vegan), load up on plant based sources of iron and get your iron checked the next time you go to the doctor.

I’m waiting for my next female client who breaks this pattern by consuming 20-30 grams of protein at a meal, isn’t fat phobic, consumes dairy and somehow, some way gets their iron .