Is Dark Chocolate Healthy? No, but Cocoa Flavanols Are!

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This post is sponsored by CocoaVia® Brand. chocolate and cocoa flavanols

A dark rich chocolate brownie or smooth, creamy chocolate bar tastes even sweeter when you know it is good for you. After all, chocolate is full of healthy compounds right? Unfortunately, it is not that simple. In its native state, the cocoa bean contains a mixture of compounds that may be beneficial to your health. Processing cocoa beans into cocoa powder or your favorite sweet treat destroys most of these helpful compounds.

Percent Cacao Means Nothing

You can forget choosing dark chocolate based on how bitter or dark it is. The benefits of chocolate come from cocoa flavanols, not from the percent cacao or the darkness of the chocolate. Cocoa flavanols are the beneficial plant-based nutrients (phytonutrients) naturally found in cocoa. No other food on Earth can match cocoa’s unique blend of flavanols. Cocoa flavanols work with your body to maintain healthy levels of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide helps maintain the healthy flow of oxygen and nutrients to all parts of your body. Supporting healthy blood flow is essential to helping you maintain who you are for years to come. In fact, our entire bodies, including our heart, brain, and muscles, depend on healthy blood flow, which helps us feel and perform our best.

How can I Choose Dark Chocolate Rich in Beneficial Compounds?

Don’t look for health benefits from dark chocolate . Most chocolate isn’t nearly as healthy as you may believe. It takes approximately four average dark chocolate bars (more than 700 calories) to get the same amount of cocoa flavanols as you get in a single serving of CocoaVia® cocoa extract supplement. So enjoy chocolate – in moderation, as your sweet treat, but not as your daily source of cocoa flavanols!

CocoaVia Cocoa Flavanols

So if chocolate isn’t a reliable source of flavanols, how about cocoa powder? Unfortunately, most cocoa powders aren’t much better. With no added sugars, less fat, and more fiber than typical chocolate, cocoa powder can be a better option for getting a chocolatey experience. However, cocoa powder might not be a reliable way to get your flavanols. Cocoa flavanols are typically destroyed when cocoa is processed. Any cocoa powder that is Dutched or alkalized contains significantly fewer cocoa flavanols.

Taste Plus Health Benefits

To take the guess work out, you can try CocoaVia®. CocoaVia® cocoa extra supplement delivers the highest concentration of cocoa flavanols in a cocoa extract supplement today – 375mg per serving – . and numerous scientific studies have demonstrated these flavanols promote healthy blood flow from head to toe.

It’s easy to start your day with CocoaVia® supplement. Add one delicious powdered stick pack to the beverage or food of your choice. For more information on CocoaVia® supplement, which is supported by more than two decades of scientific research, visit www.CocoaVia.com. I often start my day with a peanut butter chocolate shake. I mix one stick pack of CocoaVia® Unsweetened Dark Chocolate supplement into my morning smoothie with peanut powder, ice and milk.

 

†The Food and Drug Administration has not evaluated this statement. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

 

Can the Internet Really Supply You With Healthy Meals?

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You’ve probably heard about one or more of the new meal delivery services on the market. Popular services include Blue Apron, Plated and Hello Fresh. If you’re not familiar with any meal delivery service providers, check out this in-depth review of the various choices currently available.

There’s no question having pre-portioned ingredients with recipes and directions delivered directly to your door is convenient. However, convenience comes with a price. Most of the meals cost between $9 and $13 per serving.

So, do these meals live up to the hype? Can the internet really supply you with healthy meals?

What is a “Healthy” Meal?

To review and compare the available options for getting healthy meals online, we’re going to use the following criteria (which are fit for the vast majority of healthy people). A healthy meal is one that:

  • Includes a lean protein, a high ratio of fruits and/or veggies, a whole grain, a serving of dairy and a healthy fat
  • Doesn’t include excess fat or added sugar
  • Is between 500 and 700 calories per serving (very active individuals and athletes may need more calories per meal)

Comparison

Blue Apron – Meal #1: Spaghetti Bolognese with Butter Lettuce Salad & Creamy Italian Dressing

Lean protein: No
Fruits and vegetables: Yes
Whole grain: No
Dairy: Yes
Healthy fat: Yes
Added sugar: No
Calories per serving: 770
Saturated fat: 11 g
Trans fat: No

Blue Apron – Meal #2: Za’atar-Spiced Chicken with Pink Lemon Pan Sauce & Pearl Couscous

Lean protein: Yes
Fruits and vegetables: Minimal
Whole grain: No
Dairy: No
Healthy fat: Yes
Added sugar: No
Calories per serving: 750
Saturated fat: 9 g
Trans fat: No

The Results
Both of the meals from Blue Apron come in over the 700 calories per serving mark, though both are less than 800 calories. If you are eating a 2,000 calorie diet, though, that’s still almost 40 percent of your calories in one meal. These meals are also relatively high in saturated fats, clocking in at 11 g and 9 g per serving, which is more than half of the recommended allowance of 16 g per day on a 2,000 calorie diet.

Blue Apron includes video tutorials with each of their recipes to demonstrate proper cooking techniques. All of the video lessons are available on YouTube. If you have trouble accessing any of the videos, you might be getting blocked by a content filter on your internet connection. Using a virtual private network can help you bypass the content filter so that you can access the videos no matter where you’re preparing to cook.

Hello Fresh – Meal #1: Wasabi Lime Salmon over Soy-Simmered Rice with Baby Bok Choy

Lean protein: Yes
Fruits and vegetables: Yes
Whole grain: Yes
Dairy: No
Healthy fat: Yes
Added sugar: No
Calories per serving: 660
Saturated fat: 4.5 g
Trans fat: unknown

Hello Fresh – Meal #2: Dukkah-Crusted Chicken with Sweet Potatoes and Sugar Snap Peas

Lean protein: Yes
Fruits and vegetables: Yes
Whole grain: No
Dairy: Yes
Healthy fat: Yes
Added sugar: No
Calories per serving: 510
Saturated fat: 4 g
Trans fat: unknown

The Results
In this review, Hello Fresh’s offerings both came in under 700 calories per serving and all of the meal options included a lean protein, a serving of vegetables and a healthy fat. Hello Fresh does not document the amount of trans fat in their recipes, so that information was not available for comparison. Also, at less than five grams per serving, both of their recipes also included a relatively low amount of saturated fat, at less than 5 grams per serving. If you want to try Hello Fresh’s recipes for yourself – they include them on their website (see Recipes at the top of the navigation screen).

Plated – Meal #1: Soy-Glazed Turkey Meatloaf with Coconut Rice and Greens

Lean protein: Yes
Fruits and vegetables: Minimal
Whole grain: No
Dairy: No
Healthy fat: Yes
Added sugar: Yes
Calories per serving: 840
Saturated fat: unknown
Trans fat: unknown

Plated – Meal #2: Cheesy Sweet Onion Panini with Truffle Fries

Lean protein: No
Fruits and vegetables: Minimal
Whole grain: No
Dairy: Yes
Healthy fat: Yes
Added sugar: No
Calories per serving: 870
Saturated fat: unknown
Trans fat: unknown

The Results
Of the three services we reviewed, Plated fared the worst. Their meals were both over 800 calories per serving, and the site doesn’t offer information regarding trans or saturated fats for their recipes. Also, there was very little focus on healthy ingredients, such as whole grains and vegetables. While the meals looked delicious, they probably can’t be called healthy.

In this limited review, Blue Apron and Hello Fresh both fared well in their offerings of healthy options. Their meals were low in calories, relative to the other options, and included many of the other markers of health, such as lean proteins and a high ratio of vegetables.

Meal delivery services claim they can deliver all the ingredients, recipes and cooking instructions you need to create healthy meals in your home. A closer look, though, indicates you might need to supplement some of these meals with other ingredients so that they can give you all the nutrients you need.

This is where you come in. Everyone has a different diet and everyone’s body processes food differently. So while healthy meals are available through the internet, you need to do a little homework to make sure these services’ meal options live up to their promises and offer the kind of food that will support your lifestyle.
About the Author: Cassie is a fitness professional and writer. She loves helping people learn about health and fitness and teaching them how to make the healthiest choices for their body’s individual needs.

How Dieting Wrecked your Self Esteem and Made you Overweight

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This article is for all serial dieters. If you’ve been dieting on and off for years yet never achieved or maintained your “goal” weight, you’ve been handcuffed to the multi-billion dollar diet industry. I’m here to tell you why you need to break free and how to do it.

Why You Need to Break Free From Dieting

If you are a perpetual dieter, in search of the latest magic weight loss diet or pill, you may be doing more harm than good.

Dieting Slows Your Metabolism
Losing weight leads to a drop in the amount of calories you burn each day so you need to cut your calories even more after you lose the weight to maintain your new weight. This happens even if you preserve muscle (each pound of muscle burns about four more calories per day then a pound of fat) (9). This is termed metabolic adaptation and the reasons for it aren’t entirely clear though the decrease in metabolism is correlated with how many calories you cut and changes in the hormone leptin. Leptin is a hormone secreted by fat cells; it helps regulate body weight and energy balance (7, 8).

The more you cut calories the more your metabolism will drop.

Rapid and massive weight loss seems to lead to the greatest drop in metabolic rate.

Though this happens, it doesn’t mean you shouldn’t lose weight if needed for health reasons. However, the “Oprah” cycle of repetitive low calorie dieting followed by weight regain needs to stop.

Diets Over Promise and Under Deliver
Diets promise you’ll get ripped in no time. Research tells us you won’t lose all of the weight you expect to lose (1). And that’s ok. However, unrealistic expectations are a problem because they make you want to ditch the diet or worse, binge eat because you are pissed off that you’ve been lied to.

Reign in your expectations with these validated weight loss calculators:

Pennington Biomedical Research Center Weight Loss Calculator

USDA SuperTracker

Your Life Won’t Magically Change
Dieting tells you your entire life will get better once you lose 10 lbs. Sure, you might need to hem a few pairs of pants and your self esteem may improve a bit. However, you won’t turn into a GQ or Sports Illustrated swimsuit edition cover model. Your boss will treat you the same, your relationships won’t magically improve and everything else in your life might appear to be static if you are waiting for fireworks.

There are many times I run into people who want to lose weight and as I start asking questions and digging I realize they are attempting to control their weight and hyper control their food intake because there is something in their life that is out of control. They are transferring the focus on their body, food and exercise to calm their brain down and decrease anxiety about parts of their life that are raveling out of control.

Don’t use dieting as an excuse to avoid major life issues.

Dieting Tells You “You’re Not Okay”
Many popular diets, pills and programs marketed through airbrushed ads tell you one thing “there is something is wrong with you and this book, program or pill can help you fix it.” They are preying on your vulnerable self-esteem. Taking the bait is like jumping into a dark and depressing pit over and over, attempting to crawl out, losing your grip and getting kicked right back down. Every time you gain a little weight back or judge yourself based on the bathroom scale you’ll feel dejected.

“Where there is perfectionism there is always shame (guilt, regret, sadness),” Brene Brown.

Consistently feeding your mind with a diet of “I’m not good enough” is no way to live. Treat yourself with some respect.

“I’m not good enough” is also a mental roadblock to achieving your goals. One day you’ll have a tough day, come home and say “F this. I’m fat, I might as well eat this whole package of Milky Ways.” Next thing you know you feel like a failure and fall into the ultimate Feedback Loop from Hell. “Why can’t I stick with a diet? I suck.” Once stuck in this mindset, it’s hard to recognize there could be something wrong with the diet itself and the promises (lies) you’ve been told if you just follow it.

I’m here to say you are okay.

Letting Go of the Diet Crutch

If you’ve been dieting on and off for years, recognize that you will have some anxiety in letting go. That’s okay. There are steps you can take to combat anxiety over time and still achieve good health.

What if You Want to / Need to Lose Weight?
If you need lose weight for health reasons, yet you’ve dieted over and over in the past, without reaching your goal, it is time to do something different. Here are steps you can take to a healthier weight and life without dieting:

• Get Support – research shows people who have support are more likely to take weight off and less likely to gain it back.

• Keep in mind moderate weight loss can make a tremendous difference in health. Even small amounts of weight loss can lower blood fats (triglycerides), cholesterol, blood sugar, risk for diabetes and other chronic diseases.

• Start with exercise while focusing on the immediate benefits of exercise – improved mood, improved memory, greater self esteem.

• Be proud of small “wins.” If you haven’t exercised since recess in elementary school, it isn’t necessary to jump right into high intensity interval training three days per week. Start small and be proud of your changes along the way. Even 5 to 10 minutes of exercise each day plus one diet change will help build healthy long-term habits.

• Realize that nobody is looking at you in your bathing suit on the beach and judging your body. We are the harshest critics of ourselves. Someday you will look back and regret not wearing that bathing suit and enjoying the water.

• Go on a diet from the media. Constantly viewing “ideal” body images reduces body satisfaction. In other words, the more you look at popular magazines with airbrushed pictures the worse you will feel about yourself (2, 3, 4). This is true for both men and women.

• Find a physical trait you love and focus on it daily. You will feel better about your body when you focus on the parts of your body you like the best. Conversely, focusing on the parts of your body you do not like will increase body dissatisfaction (5).

• Check out the Happiness Trap – an empowering self-help book based on behavioral psychology.

Follow This Approach
There are two approaches to not dieting and both go hand-in-hand. The first one is Intuitive Eating. Intuitive eating breaks the dieting cycle and teaches you how to feed your body based on hunger and satiety cues. There are number of intuitive eating counselors who can help you with this.

The second approach is Body Kindness. This book is about creating a happier and healthier life. The focus is on spiraling up, the idea that your mindset and mood influences your choices and vice versa to help you stay more positive, optimistic and open to bring the best you to the world — and it has nothing to do with what you weigh. Author Rebecca Scritchfield, RDN, a former chronic dieter who broke free from the cyle of dieting and emotional overeating, believes dieting creates a downward spiral because it enhances your negative emotions. Body Kindness is based on three pillars: Love Connect Care. Make choices from a place of love, connect to your body to find out what you really need, and fully commit to your self-care plans.

I use diets, when warranted, and prescribed the right way for those who are not perpetual dieters. I do not recommend them for people who have gone on and off them for years and have a poor body image. I will never forget the time I counseled a woman in her 30s who had been on and off Weight Watchers since she was a pre-teen. She said, “it works for me.” And she was surprised at my response “no, it hasn’t worked for you because if it did you wouldn’t be sitting in front of me today.” She said she was ashamed about how she looked. My response, “let’s work on that. It’s time to let go, break free, give up emotional overeating and body shame.” That’s no way to live.

References

1 Dhurandhar EJ et al. Predicting adult weight change in the real world: a systematic review and meta-analysis accounting for compensatory changes in energy intake or expenditure. Int J Obes (Lond) 2015;39(8):1181-7.

2 Morry MM, Staska SL. Magazine exposure: Internalization, self-objectification, eating attitudes, and body satisfaction in male and female university students. Can J Behav 2001; 33: 269–279

3 Grabe S, Ward LM, Hyde JS. The role of the media in body image concerns among women: a meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies.
Psychol Bull 2008;134(3):460-76.

4 Agliata D, Tantleff-Dunn S (2004) The impact of media exposure on males’ body image. J Soc Clin Psychol 23: 7–22

5 Smeets E, Jansen A, Roefs A. Bias for the (un)attractive self: on the role of attention in causing body (dis)satisfaction. Health Psychol 2011;30(3):360-7.

6 Lowe MR et al. Multiple types of dieting prospectively predict weight gain during the freshman year of college. Appetite 2006;47(1):83-90.

7 Zhou Y and Rui L. Leptin signaling and leptin resistance. Front Med 7: 207-222, 2013.

8 Knuth ND, Johannsen DL, Tamboli RA, Marks-Shulman PA, Huizenga R, Chen KY, Abumrad NN, Ravussin E, and Hall KD. Metabolic adaptation following massive weight loss is related to the degree of energy imbalance and changes in circulating leptin. Obesity (Silver Spring) 22: 2563-2569, 2014.

9 Johannsen DL, Knuth ND, Huizenga R, Rood JC, Ravussin E, and Hall KD. Metabolic slowing with massive weight loss despite preservation of fat-free mass. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012; 97: 2489-2496.

Ketogenic Diets: Fat-Filled Lies Won’t Make You Slim (or a Better Athlete)

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How do you turn your body into a fat burning machine, run faster than Usain Bolt, recover from exercise immediately and wake up each day bursting with energy? According to some people, the ketogenic diet is your answer (learn the basics of this diet here). This high-fat, moderate protein diet that is practically void of carbohydrates forces your body to use fat for energy. LeBron James supposedly tried it and offensive lineman decided to give it a shot after an ex-NFL center and O-line coach LeCharles Bentley recommended it. However, the offensive lineman and LeBron weren’t actually following a ketogenic diet. Though these athletes didn’t really know what they were following (no worries LeCharles, I’m sure your nutrition advice is on par with me coaching the O-line), people who actually follow it swear by it. Could this be an unconventional path to weight loss and better health? Unfortunately, the ketogenic diet craze has been fattened with misinformation.

Here is what I am covering in this post:

  • Eat Fat, Lose Fat? Does the ketogenic diet make you lose weight?
  • How does this diet impact muscle?
  • The ketogenic diet and athletic performance.
  • The issue with ketogenic research studies.

I am not covering “training low” or low carbohydrate  / non-ketogenic diets in this article.

Eat Fat, Lose Fat?

During the first several days on a ketogenic diet your weight will take a nosedive. Carbohydrate is stored in the form of glycogen in liver and muscle. Each gram of carbohydrate is stored with 3 – 4 grams of water. Decrease your carbohydrate intake, use glycogen and you’ll lose water weight very quickly. Weight loss, even if from water, can motivate people driven by the number on the scale. Given that adherence is the number one predictor of weight loss when on a diet, we can’t discount psychological effect of the number on the scale going down.

What happens if you stay on the diet? A group of NIH researchers admitted seventeen overweight or obese men to a metabolic ward and placed them on a high carbohydrate baseline diet for four weeks followed by four weeks on an isocaloric ketogenic diet (this diet contained the same amount of calories as the high carbohydrate baseline diet). The men lost weight and body fat on both diets. The ketogenic diet did not lead to greater fat loss as compared to the high carbohydrate diet and in fact body fat loss slowed during the ketogenic diet and subjects lost muscle (1). Time to chuck the “carbohydrates make you fat” books in the recycling bin.

What about other studies showing ketogenic diets help athletes lose body fat and maintain performance? These studies were not actually using a ketogenic diet protocol but instead were high fat, high protein, low carbohydrate diets. Also, none of the studies measured if the study subjects were actually in nutritional ketosis (2, 3, 4).  See the section on The Issue with Ketogenic Research Studies for more information on this topic.

Ketogenic diet and weight

Regardless of the studies indicating the ketogenic diet will not lead to greater weight loss as compared to a diet composed of the same amount of calories, some may lose weight because they will end up cutting down on their favorite foods. Fewer food choices often means fewer calories consumed.

Muscle Up with the Ketogenic Diet?

The ketogenic diet isn’t high enough in protein for maximal muscle gains. Using the lower end of fat intake on a classic ketogenic diet (80% of calories), one could consume 15% of calories from protein (112 grams) on a 3,000-calorie diet. Protein requirements are at least 1.2 – 1.8 grams of protein per kilogram bodyweight (or 0.55 – 0.82 grams per lb. bodyweight) per day if training and eating a diet with enough calories to maintain weight. Protein needs go up if you are cutting calories to spare the breakdown of muscle tissue when dieting. On this diet, 112 grams of protein equals just under 1.3 grams of protein per kg bodyweight for a 200 lb. person and even less for anyone who weighs more.

In addition to inadequate protein intake, “the ketogenic diet reduces many of the signaling molecules involved in muscle hypertrophy (growth),” states Dr. Antonio Paoli, M.D., B.Sc., Associate Professor and Vice Dean of the School of Human Movement Sciences, University of Padova. Without getting too technical, even with sufficient calorie intake, the ketogenic diet suppresses the IGF-1 / AKT / mTOR pathway (5). Using ketones for energy slows muscle breakdown. However it doesn’t stop this process (5).

The Ketogenic Diet and Athletic Performance

Once fully adapted to a ketogenic diet, athletes can supposedly rely on a seemingly endless supply of body fat for energy. No need for carbohydrate gels, beans, gummies and sports drinks every 15-30 minutes during long runs, rides or triathlons to sustain energy levels. Fewer calories consumed may make it easier for some people to stay within their total daily calorie needs (though if you are training that much staying within your calorie requirements shouldn’t be difficult).

Trading carbs for fat seems like a huge benefit for athletes, particularly endurance athletes who train and compete for several hours at a time (6). In addition to utilizing body fat, fat actually produces more energy (ATP) (5). However, fat is a slow source of fuel (see graphic below), the human body cannot access it quickly enough to sustain high-intensity exercise and therefore, this diet is really only (potentially) applicable to ultra-runners and triathletes competing at a relatively moderate to slow pace.

In a ketogenic diet study examining athletic endurance, researchers had subjects cycle at a snails pace (equivalent to a heart rate of about 120 beats per minute for anyone 20-30 years old or 115 for a 40 year old) until they became exhausted before and after 4-weeks on a ketogenic diet. There were no differences in the amount of time they were able to cycle before getting tired prior to or after the four-week ketogenic diet (7). In studies examining high fat diets (not ketogenic and ketones weren’t measured) and endurance performance, study subjects relied on more fat as opposed to carbohydrate during low intensity exercise, yet there was no clear performance advantage on the higher fat diet (8). A recently published study examined 20 elite ultra-marathoners and Ironman distance triathletes. Some were habitually consuming a traditional high carbohydrate diet while the other group was following a ketogenic diet (slightly adjusted macronutrient ratios yet they were in ketosis as measured by blood ketone levels). As expected, those following a higher fat diet used a greater percentage of fat for energy while the higher carbohydrate diet group used more carbohydrate for energy during a 180 minute submaximal running test (I’d call that leisure running intensity). There was no difference in calories burned over the course of the run. Both groups had the same level of perceived exertion and there was no test to determine performance differences between groups (9).

If there’s no performance benefit and we know carbohydrates work, why follow this diet? If your primary goal is weight loss, it doesn’t matter if you use more fat than carbohydrate while exercising (SN: can we please stop talking about the fat burning zone) as long as you’re burning more total calories over the course of the day. Plus, in the interest of (if you are not an ultra endurance athlete) jack up the intensity and burn as many calories in a short period of time as possible. Unfortunately, a ketogenic diet won’t help you do that – when relying on fat for fuel, the intensity of your exercise will drop – the body simply can’t access fat (a slow source of energy) quickly enough to sustain high-intensity exercise. Instead, carbohydrates are necessary for high intensity activity.
ketogenic diet and sports

The Issue with Ketogenic Research Studies

Here’s the issue with many ketogenic research studies and media reports based on them: in most cases, the study subjects were not actually following a ketogenic diet – they were following a higher fat, high-protein low carbohydrate diet (10, 11, 12). Each person’s carbohydrate and protein limits needed to stay in ketosis vary and therefore, measuring ketones through blood or urine is the only definitive way to determine if you are in ketosis. Complicating matters more, low carbohydrate diets (including ketogenic diets) lead to a substantial drop in carbohydrate content, and associated water stored with it, in muscle. This change overestimates the drop in lean body mass as measured by DEXA.

ketogenic and low carbohydrate diets

There are no modifications, higher protein intakes or “on again, off again” (where you go on it one day and off it the next) to this diet. You must be in a state of nutritional ketosis or you will need to decrease carbohydrate and protein intake even further to get into nutritional ketosis and rely on ketones for energy.

Is There Any Benefit?

Ketogenic diets help decrease incidence and severity of seizures in epileptic patients (this is what the diet is intended for). Also, ketogenic diets may be beneficial when implemented soon after a traumatic brain injury (including concussion) (13). In addition, scientists are examining if this diet is beneficial for diseases that affect the brain such as Alzheimer’s.

If you want to lose weight, the ketogenic diet is not superior to a reduced calorie diet. Also, unless you are an ultra endurance athlete who just loves dietary fat, hates eating at social occasions and can put up with the potential side effects from this diet it isn’t for you.
Now where is the O-line? I’ve got some coaching to do…

References

1 Hall KD, Chen KY, Guo J, Lam YY, Leibel RL, Mayer LE, Reitman ML, Rosenbaum M, Smith SR, Walsh BT, Ravussin E. Energy expenditure and body composition changes after an isocaloric ketogenic diet in overweight and obese men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Jul 6. [Epub ahead of print]

2 Zajac A, Poprzecki S, Maszczyk A, Czuba M, Michalczyk M, Zydek G. The effects of a ketogenic diet on exercise metabolism and physical performance in off-road cyclists. Nutrients 2014;6(7):2493-508.

3 Rhyu HS, Cho SY. The effect of weight loss by ketogenic diet on the body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors and cytokines of Taekwondo athletes. J Exerc Rehabil 2014;10(5):326-31.

4 Paoli A, Grimaldi K, D’Agostino D et al. Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts. JISSN 2012;9:34.

5 Paoli A, Bianco A, Grimaldi KA. The ketogenic diet and sport: a possible marriage? Ex Sports Sci Reviews 2015.

6 Volek J, Noakes T, Phinney SD. Rethinking fat as a fuel for endurance exercise. Eur J Sport Sci 2014;2:1-8.

7 Phinney SD, Bistrian BR, Evans WJ, Gervino E, Blackburn GL. The human metabolic response to chronic ketosis without caloric restriction: preservation of submaximal exercise capability with reduced carbohydrate oxidation. Metabolism 1983;32(8):769-76.

8 Burke LM, Kiens B. “Fat adaptation” for athletic performance: the nail in the coffin? J Appl Physiol 2006;100(1):7-8.

9 Volek J, Freidenreich DJ, Saenz C, Kunces LJ, Creighton BC, Bartley JM, Davitt pm, Munoz CX, Anderson JM, Maresh CM, Lee EC, Schuenke MD, Aerni G, Kraemer WJ, Phinney SD. Metabolic characteristics of keto-adapted ultra-endurance runners. Metab Clin Exp 2016;65(3):100-110.

10 Tinsley GM, Willoughby DS. Fat-Free mass changes during ketogenic diets and the potential role of resistance training. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2015 Aug 12. [Epub ahead of print]2 Rouillier MA, Riel D, Brazeau AS, St. Pierre DH, Karelis AD. Effect of an Acute High Carbohydrate Diet on Body Composition Using DXA in Young Men. Ann Nutr Metab 2015;66:233-236

11  Paoli A. The ketogenic diet and sport: a possible marriage? Ex Sci Sports Sciences Rev 2015;43(3):153-62.

12  Johnstone AM, Horgan GW, Murison SD, Bremner DM, Lobley GE. Effects of a high-protein ketogenic diet on hunger, appetite, and weight loss in obese men feeding ad libitum. Am Society Clin Nutr 2008;87(1):44-55.

13 Nutrition and Traumatic Brain Injury: Improving Acute and Subacute Health Outcomes in Military Personnel (2011). The National Academies Press, Institute of Medicine. Washington DC. 2011 http://www.nap.edu/read/13121/chapter/15

 

Can You Lose Fat and Gain Muscle at the Same Time?

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Eat fewer calories than you burn each day and you’ll lose weight. There’s one major issue with this time-tested approach: you’ll probably strip away more than just body fat. Weight loss, especially fast weight loss, achieved after crash dieting or drastically slashing calorie intake, leads to a decrease in muscle mass and subsequent drop in metabolism. A slower metabolism means your body needs even fewer calories to maintain your new weight (weight loss alone = fewer calories needed to carry around a smaller body, add muscle loss and your calorie needs drop even more). In addition, with less muscle you won’t be able to push yourself as hard during workouts (and therefore burn as many calories). This can put you on the fast track to yo-yo dieting, weight loss and regain. There’s a much better approach and a recently published study highlights how you can lose body fat and gain muscle at the same time.

crash dieting leads to muscle loss

In this article I’ll cover:

  1. How dieting can slow your metabolism;
  2. The latest evidence on losing fat and building muscle at the same time;
  3. Why researchers didn’t use a low carbohydrate diet;
  4. How you can keep the weight off.

How Dieting Slows Your Metabolism

When you eat fewer calories than you need each day, your body is forced to pull from its backup supply, body fat and muscle, to maintain your energy (calorie) needs. Some people lose a substantial amount of muscle when dieting, 30% or more, of their initial muscle mass. In addition to a decrease in muscle mass and slower metabolism, lower calorie diets decrease the intracellular signaling necessary for the synthesis of new proteins in muscle. Plus, muscle tissue may be less sensitive to protein when you’re dieting. In other words, it’s really tough to build muscle when dieting to lose weight. Based on these physiological changes, there’s an age-old theory suggesting it’s impossible to gain muscle and lose fat at the same time. However, scientists from McMaster University in Canada found it is not only possible but also, doable even when losing a substantial amount of body fat in a relatively short period of time.

Building Muscle While Losing Body Fat

In the McMaster University study, young overweight recreationally active men (prior to the study they exercised 1-2 times per week) were placed on an intense four-week diet and exercise program. Their diet contained 40% fewer calories each day than needed for weight maintenance. All meals were prepared and provided to participants during the study. The men were randomly selected for one of two diet groups:

  Higher Protein Group

 

Lower Protein (Control Group)

 

Total daily calorie intake 15 calories per pound of lean body mass 15 calories per pound of lean body mass
Macronutrients 35% protein, 50% carbohydrate and 15% fat 15% protein, 50% carbohydrates, 35% fat
Total daily protein intake 1.09 grams of protein per lb. body weight (2.4 grams of protein per kg) 0.55 grams of protein per lb. bodyweight (1.2 grams of protein per kg) – 2x the RDA (0.8 g/kg) for protein

 

Per meal protein intake 0.22 grams of protein per lb. of body weight

 

0.10 grams of protein per lb. of body weight

 

Dairy shakes 3- 4 / day including one after exercise (depending on body weight; higher protein, lower carbohydrate shakes compared to the Lower Protein Group)

 

3- 4 / day including one after exercise (depending on body weight; lower protein, higher carbohydrate shakes compared to the Higher Protein Group)

 

Training Program
Supervised workouts consisted of full-body resistance circuit training twice per week and high intensity interval training six days per week. In addition to their structured exercise program, all participants were instructed to get at least 10,000 steps per day as monitored by a pedometer worn on their hip.

Resistance Training Circuit
2 times per week
3 sets of 10 reps at 80% 1 RM with the last set of each exercise to failure
No rest between sets
1-minute rest between each circuit

Sprint Interval Training
1 time per week
Four to eight 30-second bouts on a stationary bike (participants started with four sets and progressed to eight sets)
4 minutes rest between bouts

Modified High Intensity Interval Training
1 time per week
10 bouts of all-out sprint for one minute at 90% VO2max
1-minute rest intervals at 50% VO2max

Time Trial
1 time per week as fast as possible until approximately 250 calories were burned

Plyometric bodyweight circuit
30-second rest between exercises

Results
Both the lower protein and higher protein groups lost weight with no significant difference between groups. Men in the higher protein group gained 2.64 lbs. of muscle and lost 10.56 lbs. of body fat while men in the control group gained little muscle (0.22 lbs.) and lost 7.7 lbs. of fat. Both groups improved all but one measure of strength in addition to aerobic and anaerobic capacity. There were no differences between groups in strength, power, aerobic fitness or performance at the end of the study.

In this study, a higher protein, reduced calorie diet combined with a high intensity circuit-training program including interval training and sprints helped participants build muscle. In addition to their total protein intake, participants in the higher protein group also consumed more protein per meal (approximately 49 grams per meal) than those in the lower protein group (approximately 22 grams per meal).

Why Didn’t They Cut Carbohydrates?

Low carbohydrate diets are not only popular, but they may lead to greater weight loss (in overweight and obese individuals), initially, than higher carbohydrate, low fat diets (some of this is water weight). However, when giving up carbohydrates you also sacrifice something else, intense training. Carbohydrates are the primary source of fuel used during high-intensity exercise because your body can readily access and utilize them for energy. Fat is a slow source of energy and therefore, your body cannot access and use fat quickly enough to sustain high intensity training. In this study, both groups of participants consumed 50% of their calorie intake from carbohydrate. If the study authors cut carbohydrates, the participants wouldn’t make it through their high intensity training program that was specifically designed to take off fat and increase muscle mass.

Keeping the Weight Off

Consider a program like the one used in this study a short-term jumpstart. It isn’t sustainable over a long period of time. The transition to a longer-term approach after weight loss should include a gradual increase in calorie intake while maintaining a higher protein diet (at least 0.55 grams of protein per lb. of body weight to maintain muscle while considerably more, along the lines of 1.09 – 1.41 grams of protein per lb. of body weight may be necessary to continue building muscle during periods of reduced calorie intake). This gradual increase in calorie intake is important because substantial weight loss results in a slower metabolism even if you maintain or build muscle during your jumpstart weight loss program. It isn’t entirely clear why this happens and the drop is greater than scientists can predict based on a decrease in muscle mass. Even if you build some muscle, this won’t rev fire up your metabolism to make up for a drastic decrease in body weight.

One pound of muscle burns a measly 5.9 calories per day at rest while a pound of fat burns 2 calories per day at rest.

Greater weight lost while dieting means an even greater drop in metabolism – something dieters must account for so they can maintain their new weight.

In addition to slowly increasing calorie intake and consuming a higher protein diet, each meal should contain at least 25 – 30 grams of protein. We don’t know the exact amount of protein per meal needed to maximally stimulate muscle building.

Your exercise regimen should continue to include resistance training and you’d be wise to continually vary your training program. Be sure to move each day as well. Research shows many people naturally adjust to greater amounts of aerobic exercise by decreasing their activities of daily living. They exercise intensely at the gym and then sit the rest of the day. Circumvent this by using one of the many devices that counts steps each day. Also, consider doing more work around your house including cleaning, mowing your lawn, gardening, and washing your car. Get moving and stay moving all day long.

If you want to get rid of your love handles while building a six-pack at the same time, combine an effective resistance training and high intensity interval-training program with a reduced calorie, higher protein diet. Your diet and exercise program does not need to be as rigorous as the one in this study. Instead, you can adjust the McMaster University approach to fit your lifestyle, though your results may take more time. Once you reach your goal weight, slowly transition your training program and diet to an approach you can live with.

References
Weinheimer EM, Sands LP, Campbell WW. A systematic review of the separate and combined effects of energy restriction and exercise on fat free mass in middle-aged and older adults: implications for sarcopenic obesity. Nutr Rev 2010;68:375–88.

Stiegler P, Cunliffe A. The role of diet and exercise for the maintenance of fat-free mass and resting metabolic rate during weight loss. Sports Med 2006;36(3):239-62.

Heymsfield SB, Gonzalez MCC, Shen W, Redman L, Thomas D. Weight Loss Composition is One-Fourth Fat-Free Mass: A Critical Review and Critique of This Widely Cited Rule. Obes Rev 2014; 15(4):310–321.

Deurenberg P, Weststrate JA, Hautvast JG. Changes in fat-free mass during weight loss measured by bioelectrical impedance and by densitometry. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;49(1):33-6.

Johannsen DL, Knuth ND, Huizenga R, Rood JC, Ravussin E, Hall KD. Metabolic Slowing with Massive Weight Loss despite Preservation of Fat-Free Mass. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012; 97(7): 2489–2496.

Ravussin E, Bogardus C. Review Relationship of genetics, age, and physical fitness to daily energy expenditure and fuel utilization. Am J Clin Nutr 1989; 49(5 Suppl):968-75.

Phillips SM. A Brief Review of Higher Dietary Protein Diets in Weight Loss: A Focus on Athletes. Sports Med 2014; 44(Suppl 2): 149–153.

Longland T, Oikawa SY, Mitchell CJ, Devries MC, Phillips S. Higher compared with lower dietary protein during an energy deficit combined with intense exercise promotes greater lean mass gain and fat mass loss: a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2016;103:738-46.

Heydari M, Freund J, Boutcher SH. The effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise on body composition of overweight young males. J Obes 2012;2012:480467.

Areta JL, Burke LM, Camera DM, West DW, Crawshay S, Moore DR,Stellingwerff T, Phillips SM, Hawley JA, Coffey VG. Reduced resting skeletal muscle protein synthesis is rescued by resistance exercise and protein ingestion following short-term energy deficit. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2014;306:E989–97.

Pasiakos SM, Vislocky LM, Carbone JW, Altieri N, Konopelski K, Freake HC, Anderson JM, Ferrando AA, Wolfe RR, Rodriguez NR. Acute energy deprivation affects skeletal muscle protein synthesis and associated intracellular signaling proteins in physically active adults. J Nutr 2010;140:745–51.

Hector AJ, Marcotte GR, Churchward-Venne TA, Murphy CH, Breen, von AM, Baker SK, Phillips SM. Whey protein supplementation preserves postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis during short-term energy restriction in overweight and obese adults. J Nutr 2015;145:246–52.

Murphy CH, Churchward-Venne TA, Mitchell CJ, Kolar NM, KassisA, Karagounis LG, Burke LM, Hawley JA, Phillips SM. Hypoenergetic diet-induced reductions in myofibrillar protein synthesis are restored with resistance training and balanced daily protein ingestion in older men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2015;308:E734–43.

Chaston TB, Dixon JB, O’Brien PE. Changes in fat-free mass during significant weight loss: a systematic review. Int J Obes (Lond) 2007; 31(5):743-50.

Garthe I, Raastad T, Refsnes PE, Koivisto A, Sundgot-Borgen J. Effect of two different weight-loss rates on body composition and strength and power-related performance in elite athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2011; 21(2):97-104.

Churchward-Venne TA, Murphy CH, Longland TM, Phillips SM. Role of protein and amino acids in promoting lean mass accretion with resistance exercise and attenuating lean mass loss during energy deficit in humans. Amino Acids 2013; 45(2):231-40.

Helms ER, Zinn C, Rowlands DS, Brown SR. A systematic review of dietary protein during caloric restriction in resistance trained lean athletes: a case for higher intakes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2014; 24(2):127-38.

Meal Planning Made Easy

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salmon with veggies

If you don’t have the luxury of eating in a cafeteria with a variety of options each day, it makes sense to plan your meals ahead of time. Doing so will save you time and money. If saving money doesn’t entice you, consider this: eating at home can help you lose weight. A study published in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics found the average meal at 360 restaurant dinner meals examined contained 1,200 calories. If you choose to dine at an American, Italian or Chinese restaurant, that meal may cost you a whopping 1,495 calories. Don’t worry, I have no intention of having you replicate the instagram photos from fitness buffs who eat perfectly portioned bland-looking chicken, broccoli and brown rice twice a day, every day. Instead, I am an advocate for taste, variety, and better nutrition. Here are the 4 steps you should take to start planning better-for-you meals ahead of time:

1 – Take Inventory

Go through your cabinets, refrigerator and freezer at least once per month and throw out anything that is past it’s expiration date, freezer burned, molded, and stale or smells bad (smell your cooking oil too and if it doesn’t smell normal, toss it). Half-eaten anything that is more than a day old? Trash. This is also a great time to take inventory of what you have on hand.

2 – Stock Your Kitchen

After taking inventory, decide what you need (sticking to your grocery list will save you from impulse buys you don’t need after looking at your grocery store circular). Essential foods include shelf stable, refrigerator and frozen foods. I like the option of preparing a meal in 5 minutes or less. Frozen and canned items allow me to do this.

Shelf Stable:

  • Beans, lentils and legumes (tip: some lentils can be soaked for just 40 minutes and added to a wide variety of dishes from salads to spouse, stews and grain-based dishes)
  • Bread
  • Canned vegetables, beans, fish and chicken
  • Condiments including chicken, beef or vegetable broth, mustard, hot sauce and any other commonly used condiments
  • Cooking oil – get good quality cooking oil. Pay more for a brand you trust. Olive oil is the most adulterated food on the market so you do get what you pay for.
  • Nutrition bars
  • Nuts, nut butters and seeds (all can be refrigerated; opened nut butters should be refrigerated)
  • Popcorn, whole grain snacks
  • Protein powder
  • Rice, pasta, whole grains, cereals and other similar foods. Grab a few options that you can make in a just a few minutes including couscous. Also, vary your rice, pasta and whole grains – look for black, red or purple rice, bean pastas and more.
  • Soups (boxed, bagged or in cans)
  • Spices & seasonings (including salt and pepper). If you don’t use these regularly get dried spices or refrigerated spices in squeezable tubes.
  • Ziploc bags – these will come in very handy if you travel (always pack food and supplements to go)!

Fresh:

  • Dairy (milk, yogurt, cheese)
  • Eggs (consider egg substitutes for their shelf life)
  • Fresh vegetables and fruits
  • Fish, poultry, meat

Frozen:

  • Fish, poultry, meat
  • Fruit
  • Vegetables

3 – Menu Planning

There are a number of ways you can approach menu planning but one of the easiest ways is to center your meals around the protein rich foods you plan on eating. So for instance, if you choose chicken, lean ground beef and fish, you can center 7 meals on those three proteins. Or, if your week is hectic and you are very busy, you can plan meals around protein-rich foods that take just minutes to prepare such as canned tuna, eggs and rotisserie chicken.

After you pick your protein rich foods, decide on recipes or quick prep meals. You might want to do this by determining what perishable foods you have on hand and need to use. So, let’s say you have mushrooms in the refrigerator and chicken defrosting. If you don’t feel like eating chicken Marsala but you aren’t sure what else you can make with a little flavor, type these words in Google to get other meal ideas “chicken, mushrooms, recipe, quick, easy.” (Also check out Cookinglight.com’s “5 Ingredient Cookbook, Fresh Food Fast”)

After determining which meals you are eating each day of the week, write a shopping list by figuring out any extras you may need to buy and what staple foods you are out of. Be flexible with your list depending on the season and sale prices. Shopping in season often means you will not only get the best looking produce but you will save money too. So for instance, if your recipe calls for sweet potatoes but butternut squash is a steal – go for the squash.  When you make your shopping list, you can do it on an app, in the notes section on your phone, or the old fashioned way with pen and paper. I make mine in the order of the grocery store I am shopping in so I can cross items off one by one without having to scan the entire list to make sure I’m not forgetting something before I move onto the next section of the store.

If the weekly circular tempts you with sugary cereals, cookies and candies on sale, don’t pick it up. You won’t miss out on a bargain because you’ll figure out which healthy foods are on sale when you look for the items on your list – all stores flag these items for you.

Quick sample meal ideas:

  • Rotisserie chicken, 10 minute brown rice (or thawed and microwave brown rice from your freezer), frozen veggies
  • Rotisserie chicken wraps with hummus (spread the hummus on first) and any crunch veggies you desire (shopped carrots, cucumbers etc.)
  • Whole-wheat pasta, spaghetti sauce and frozen turkey meatballs with added veggies such as cooked (or steamed) mushrooms, squash, zucchini
  • Whole wheat pasta, canned tuna, light cream of mushroom soup (either made into a casserole and baked along with frozen peas, ½ cup milk and chopped onions at 400ºF for 20 minutes or you can heat up the soup and mix the ingredients together and eat it.
  • Canned tuna, light mayo, chopped celery and onions for a tuna sandwich.
  • Grilled salmon drizzled with lemon, asparagus and a sweet potato.

4 – Storing and Packing

You can freeze almost any food and reheat it easily. Even brown rice – just cook it, let it cool completely and portion it into zip-loc bags (make sure no air is in the bag) for later. Two important things to remember when freezing foods – freeze them in airtight containers and label them so you know what you made and when it was frozen. The longer you leave food in the freezer the greater the likelihood of texture and taste changes over time (sometimes resulting in freezer burn). Foods that freeze well include:

  • Breads
  • Canned foods (once out of the can of course)
  • Casseroles (keep in mind that mayonnaise and other cream sauces do not freeze well)
  • Egg whites (raw)
  • Grains, cooked
  • Granola (homemade or store bought)
  • Herbs, fresh
  • Nuts, seeds (these should not be kept opened on shelves for long periods of time as they can go rancid)
  • Cheese – some types freeze better than others
  • Fish, poultry, meat (raw meat and poultry freezes better than cooked meat and poultry because of moisture lost during cooking).
  • Fruit, though this must be completely dry and frozen in portions (unless you want it stuck together in big clumps). The texture may change so fresh fruit that is frozen may be best used when blended in shakes.
  • Sauces
  • Soups, stews, stock
  • Yogurt – if you want to eat it frozen. If it defrosts the consistency isn’t so great.

Thaw food in the refrigerator, a microwave or immersed in cold water only (in a leak proof plastic bag submerged in the water that should be changed every 30 minutes), not out on countertops or in kitchen sinks.

Recommended Freezer Storage Time (for quality only, frozen food is safe indefinitely if left frozen).

Food Months
Bacon and Sausage 1 – 2
Casseroles 2 – 3
Egg whites or egg substitutes 12
Frozen dinners 3 – 4
Ham, hotdogs, lunchmeats 1 – 2
Meat, uncooked roasts 4 – 12
Meat, uncooked steaks or chops 4 – 12
Meat, uncooked ground 3 – 4
Meat, cooked 2 – 3
Poultry, uncooked whole 12
Poultry, uncooked parts 9
Poultry, cooked 4
Soups and stews 2 – 3
Wild game, uncooked 8 – 12

See, that wasn’t so tough! Get started planning, preparing and cooking right away. If there are a limited number of dishes you feel comfortable cooking, check out quick and easy cookbooks or resources on line. Each time you try a new recipe you’ll expand your horizons and taste buds and also be able to prepare a wider variety of meals on the fly in the future.

References
USDA. Freezing and Food Safety. http://www.fsis.usda.gov/factsheets/focus_on_freezing/

 

Should Endurance Athletes Switch to a Low Carbohydrate Diet?

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High carbohydrate pasta with tomatoes
Pasta – a typical meal for endurance athletes.

Should endurance athletes trade in their high carbohydrate gels, gummies, and pasta for fatty steak and butter?  A recent study found elite ultra-marathoners and iron distance triathletes on a low carbohydrate diet  burned significantly more fat while running than  their counterparts on a typical higher carbohydrate diet. There was no difference in the level of glycogen depletion between groups after a 3-hour run.

Why Carbohydrates Matter

For several decades endurance athletes have relied on a carbohydrate rich diet to fuel their training and performance. Carbohydrates are the primary source of energy used during activity. They’re also a fast fuel – your body can use gels, gummies and sports drinks very quickly while also accessing the carbohydrates stored in your muscle when your energy needs outpace how quickly you can squirt more gel in your mouth. Regular intake of carbohydrates during  prolonged activity provides an important source of energy for working muscles and helps spare dipping into your reserves in muscle tissue (in the form of glycogen). Once glycogen levels start getting too low, your performance will subsequently decline.

If carbohydrates are important for performance why would anyone go on a low carbohydrate diet?

The longer you run, bike, swim or exercise in general, the more carbohydrates you need to keep up with energy demands. There are three main reasons athletes (particularly ultra endurance athletes) want an approach that doesn’t require carbohydrate during long bouts of exercise are:

  1. Your taste buds get tired –  Eat any food over and over again and you will get sick of it eventually. Now imagine running 30, 50 or 100 miles and eating a gel every 30 minutes. The consistency, sweetness and flavors will make your taste buds revolt.
  2. Your stomach might get upset. Exercise + eating (even seemingly easy to digest carbohydrate products) can cause stomach upset in some people.
  3. You are trying to lose body fat. If you are exercising for long periods of time it may sound counterintuitive to consume 30-60 grams of carbohydrate (or 90+ depending on the type of carbohydrate, your stomach’s tolerance and the type of exercise you’re doing) each hour while training.

If any of these apply to you, a diet that doesn’t force your body to rely on carbohydrates for energy may sound very appealing.

The Study & the Low Carb Diets for Endurance Athletes

The body has amazing ability to adapt to changes in the macronutrient composition of your diet.  In other words, if you eat more fat you’ll burn more fat. If you are adapted to a low carbohydrate diet, you will rely on your body fat for fuel and will not need to consume gels, gummies or any other carbohydrates while running, biking or swimming. However, there is an adaptation period.  It takes time for your body to switch over from relying on carbohydrate to fuel activity to using primarily fat. The study subjects included elite male ultra-endurance athletes who habitually consumed a high carbohydrate diet (> 55% of calories from carbohydrate) and a separate group of those habitually consuming  a low carbohydrate diet (< 20% of calories from carbohydrate and > 60% from fat though the average was 70% from fat) for at least 9 months. Both groups slept, reported to the lab fasted and then drank a 343 calorie shake (the shake contained 4.3 grams of carbohydrate for the low carbohydrate group and  42.7 g of carbohydrate for the high carbohydrate group). Ninety minutes later they ran on a treadmill.

Results

As expected, the low carbohydrate high-fat diet group used a lot more fat when jogging then the high carbohydrate group (88% of calories from fat vs. 56% in the high carbohydrate group). They also used more fat at a higher intensity than the high carbohydrate diet group. They were able to use fat at a good rate – fat is typically a slow source of energy but the rate of fat use in this fat-adapted group was pretty compatible to the typical rate (but not the maximum) at which an athlete can use carbohydrates. Glycogen levels at rest, glycogen breakdown during exercise and re-synthesis after exercise was the same in both groups. * There was no difference in the amount of calories burned between the two groups.

Is This Diet Right for You?

Ultra endurance athletes can adapt to and train on a higher fat diet.  They can also do this without glycogen depletion – glycogen depletion can come with other negative consequences including potential suppression of immune system functioning.  At this time, we do not know if regularly following a lower carbohydrate diet = better endurance performance.

What you need to consider:

  • According to this study you will not burn more calories during exercise when on a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. ** See note below.
  • Your body needs at least 1 month to adjust. The first week will probably suck (you’ll feel terrible and have low energy).
  • You might not improve performance (we don’t know).
  • Can you stay on a low carbohydrate, high fat diet? Do milkshakes made of  heavy cream, olive oil, walnut oil and whey protein sound yummy? Is this diet practical for your lifestyle? If you answer yes to those 2 questions,  then it might be worth a shot. Work with a nutrition expert to ensure you are getting all of the fiber, vitamins, and minerals you need for performance and health.

* Keep in mind the results from this study are specific to endurance athletes.

** If weight loss is your goal, it makes no difference if you burn more fat during exercise if you aren’t burning more total calories in that exercise session. The only caveat here is if a low carb diet means you consume few to no calories during exercise. In this scenario, a low-carb diet may help you consume fewer total daily calories.

Get off the Dieting Cycle and Lose Weight for Good

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Are you a yo-yo dieter, stuck in a seemingly endless cycle of losing weight and gaining it back again?  If so, you aren’t alone. I’ve met many people who say they are experts at losing weight but they just can’t seem to keep it off. So I’m going to share my top tips for taking the weight off and keeping it off for good – the very same steps I shared with Fox 5 viewers this week. But first, let’s talk about dieting….

All diets have one thing in common – they help you cut calories so you lose weight. And when you lose weight you’ll lose both fat and muscle. However, when you go on a juice fast or low calorie diet that doesn’t contain enough protein (and most don’t), you will lose a considerable amount of muscle tissue. And that’s a huge problem because muscle burns more calories at rest than fat (just a few but it adds up over time) so when you lose muscle you’ll need fewer calories each day just to maintain your weight. Over time, repeated bouts of protein poor diets could decrease your calorie needs even further, making it increasingly difficult to keep the weight off without dieting. And therefore, if you want to go on a diet there are two things you need to do:

  • Feed the Muscle to Keep the Muscle. You’ll need even more protein when you cut your calories to help ensure you are preserving muscle while losing fat. A good rule of thumb, start by consuming at least 25 – 30 grams of protein per meal. At breakfast consider mixing a packet of protein powder in 6 oz. of milk or higher protein soy milk, eggs (2 large egg whites + 2 large eggs = about 28 grams of protein and just 200 calories), plain Greek yogurt + 2 Tbsp. of peanut butter or eat foods that aren’t traditionally associated with breakfast (last night’s leftovers). At lunch and dinner, you’ll need about the serving size of a female’s palm worth of chicken, turkey or fish or mix and match proteins by adding tofu, tempeh, beans, bean pastas, nuts and seeds.
  • Have an exit strategy – a plan for transitioning off your diet. Don’t stay on a very low calorie diet for an extended period of time. You will decrease your metabolism – the amount of calories you need each day. If you are cutting calories for more than just a few months, take a day or two each week and don’t drop your calories – eat what you need to if you wanted to maintain your weight (bump up your calorie intake).

Now let’s focus on fitness. There are two mistakes I see people making over and over – spending hours on cardio machines and sitting around the rest of the day. If you spend some quality time burning calories on the treadmill, bike or other cardio machine, its time to trade in some of your aerobic sessions for resistance training – lifting weights, power yoga, or anything that requires you to exercise a muscle or muscle group against external resistance. As we age we lose muscle. Losing muscle means your body will require fewer calories each day (again, this means you’ll need to eat less over time just to stay at the same body weight). Maintaining muscle will be easier to maintain your weight. If you already lift weights, change your routine to continue to make gains. Incorporate different exercises, lift until failure – until you can’t squeeze out any more reps (you do not necessarily have to use a heavy weight but instead can lift lighter weights using more reps till failure) or try doing compound sets – two or more exercises in a row targeting the same muscle group without rest.

Last but certainly not least, get moving and stay moving. Simply going to the gym isn’t enough to help you maintain your weight or counteract the health hazards of sitting most of the day. Sitting for long periods of time slows blood circulation, increases your risk of developing blood clots, leads to tight muscles and, sedentary behavior is tied to an increased risk of heart disease. So get moving and stay moving all day long. Ignore modern conveniences including escalators, elevators, the drive-through, pay at the gas pump and more. All of these rob you of the chance to move your body, burn calories and improve your health. If you need a little motivation, buy a fitness tracker. I prefer the ones that show you how many steps you’ve walked on the device versus those that require you to log on to your computer or smart phone just to see how active you are.

Avoid Packing on the Pounds this Holiday Season

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If holiday parties tempt your desire to overindulge in mouth-watering creamy dips, comforting homemade casseroles and delectable desserts, you may find yourself panicking by the end of December and ready to crash diet on January 1st. Instead of doing something stupid (crash dieting), try a more sensible approach to avoid packing on the pounds this holiday season while still enjoying yourself. Follow these 3 tips for keeping calories in check this holiday season:

  1. Think “strategic placement” at holiday parties. While other people may worry about locating themselves near the life of the party, locate yourself away from the chip and dip bowl, especially if a meal will be served. Grab a small plate with a couple of appetizers, then walk away. Chances are you’ll get caught up in a conversation which will prevent the temptation to over-indulge in extra calories. Consider strategic placement strategy when filing your plate as well. Make half of your plate fresh fruits and veggies and the other half those higher calorie items that you can’t wait to dig into.
  1. Make smart swaps to traditional favorites. Admittedly, the holidays aren’t the best time to try an entirely different approach to cherished family menus, but you can make improvements. Try swapping reduce fat dairy for regular dairy, broth based soups instead of creamy versions and lighter versions of other ingredients as well. In addition, try adding grated vegetables (zucchini, carrots and onions often work well) in place of some ground meat in meat-based dishes.
    Not only will this enhance the nutrition value of your dish but it will also improve the flavor.
  1. Don’t drink away all your good efforts. No matter how great your strategy is for choosing healthier foods at the holidays, alcoholic drinks can be your calorie downfall. The best solution: alternate your beverages with a glass of water or club soda. You’ll stay better hydrated, keep calories in check and avoid a hangover. If plain water doesn’t sound very appealing, try sparkling water or club soda with a splash of 100% juice and a twist of lime. This simple strategy will help you reduce your calories and help you stay hydrated thereby preventing a hangover the next day. Also, if you are a wine drinker, take out a liquid measuring cup and measure 4 oz. of wine and pour it into a wine glass so you know what one serving of wine looks like. It is considerably smaller than you may think.

Fighting Food Cravings

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It’s 4:30 pm and you’re staring at the computer but can’t seem to read the words on the screen. Instead you are completely immersed in the thought of a light and fluffy cupcake topped ever so gracefully with swirls of sweet light yellow buttercream icing. The plan of action is simple and swift: as soon as 5pm strikes you’ll dash out of the office to the corner bakeshop before they run out of these freshly baked delights. If food cravings make you feel like a hostage to your obsession with a specific food or flavor, you may be wondering what causes them and how you can overcome them.

Just last week dietitian Leah Holcombe and I were talking about food cravings and we both came up with a number of reasons why people get them and how you can overcome them, based on our combined experience. From our perspective, you may be craving a certain food because:

  • You simply haven’t eaten enough calories. Before you cave, sit down and eat a meal or mini-meal, wait and see if you still want to dive into that gallon of ice cream with a ladle. As Leah said – when you are full on healthy items it is hard to overeat.
  • You skipped a meal. Meal skipping is a surefire ticket to overeating and making bad food choices. If you are hungry, your brain is running low on glucose, the first thing you’ll want is sugar or a calorie-dense food (fat). Perfect solution: that cupcake.
  • You crave comfort. One lady I counseled years ago ate extremely large amounts of shelled, roasted peanuts (and she was very specific, they had to be shelled, salted and roasted). Turns out her father brought these home for the family on occasion when she was a kid. She and her siblings dove in with delight. So, it wasn’t necessarily the peanuts she was craving but the fond memory from childhood that she wanted to relive as an adult.
  • Habit. Sometimes we simply eat out of habit. Maybe you are used to ordering fries alongside your hamburger or getting a large sweet tea every time you visit a restaurant. If you eat out of habit you need a reason and willpower to break that habit. But, it can be done.

Well, it turns out that food cravings activate a reward center in our brain according to this article published in the Wall Street Journal. And, interestingly enough, studies show that food cravings involve social, emotional and psychological factors. For more on what the research says, click here for the full article.