Yikes! Are there Antibiotics or Hormones in Your Milk & Dairy Foods?

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milk

Are antibiotics and hormones used in dairy cows contributing to the obesity epidemic, early puberty and antibiotic resistance? Before going down that road, we have to first we have to first ask if there are any antibiotics or hormones in milk and dairy products.

In this blog post I will cover:

  • Why are antibiotics given to cows?
  • Antibiotics are not in milk, here’s why.
  • Why are growth hormones given to cows? Are there any hormones in my milk and dairy food?
  • What are the cows Eating?

Why are Antibiotics given to Cows?

Antibiotics are used on farms to treat animals who are sick just like you would give an antibiotic to your child if he or she gets sick or take one yourself. There is no reason for dairy farmers to give antibiotics to cows who are not sick. Doing so costs additional money,  serves no clear purpose and arbitrarily giving animals antibiotics could contribute to antibiotic resistance. Now imagine you are a farmer and your life depends on the health of your cows – would you want to run the risk of antibiotic resistance and your cows getting sick with fewer treatment options?

Some antibiotics are also used for animal growth. The FDA is phasing out this practice so medically important antimicrobial drugs (antibiotics) will no longer be allowed to enhance growth or feed efficiency. In the future antibiotics will only be allowed to treat, control or prevent disease and of course require a prescription from a licensed veterinarian. Regardless of whether or not the antibiotic is used for growth or treatment of disease, no traces of antibiotic residues are allowed in milk or dairy products.

Antibiotics are Not in Milk, Here’s Why.

Any cow that gets an antibiotic is milked separately from the rest of the herd and the milk is thrown out. That milk will never be sold or consumed. All antibiotics have a different period of time before all traces of the medication leaves the body (whether we are talking about a cow or a human). Once this period is up and the cow is completely healthy again, the farmer tests her milk. Milk cannot be sold until it is completely clear of all drug residues. Whether organic or conventional, all milk is tested several times before making it to market. It is tested on the farm and at the milk processing plant. Any milk that tests positive for any medication residue, including antibiotics, is thrown out (1).

According to national Milk Drug Residue Data Base compiled for the years 2013 to 2014, 0% of milk tested positive for drug residues. In 2015, the FDA’s Center of Veterinary Medicine surveyed 1,918 raw milk samples (before pasteurization) from across the country. Samples were tested for residues of 31 drugs including the antibiotics, NSAIDs (ibuprofen etc.) and an antihistamine. They found 99% of sampled milk was free of any drug residues. Keep in mind the 1% of milk with residues must be thrown out – it cannot be sold (1, 2).

Cheese and yogurt are made from milk and therefore, there are no antibiotics in your cheese or yogurt either.

If you want to learn more about what farmers are doing about antibiotic resistance, Minnesota Farmer Wanda Patsche wrote an excellent blog on this topic.

Growth Hormones in Dairy Cows

Growth hormones are approved for use in dairy cows to improve milk production. Greater milk production means fewer environmental resources used to raise cows for milk. Bovine somatotropin (bST; also called bovine growth hormone or rBGH) is perhaps the most well recognized growth hormone used on dairy farms. bST is “a protein hormone produced in the pituitary gland of animals, including humans, and is essential for normal growth, development, and health maintenance.” Very little bST is used in dairy cows and there is no test that can distinguish between cows treated with bST and naturally occurring bST (3). Humans do not have receptors for bST and therefore it is passed through your body intact without being absorbed (4). As a result, there are no known side effects or health issues associated with consuming dairy from cows treated with bST. IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor 1) concentrations are slightly higher in cows treated with bST. However, the human body synthesizes IGF-I and drinking 1.5 L of milk is equivalent to an estimated 0.09% of the IGF-I produced by adults each day (5, 6, 7, 8).

USDA organic dairy products are “produced without antibiotics fed or administered to the animal at any point in its life” (9). There are no meaningful nutrition differences between organic and conventional dairy products. I covered that topic in this post.

What are the Cows Eating?

Cows’ diets also vary depending on many of the same factors that influence your food choices. However, unlike humans, all cows have the benefit of seeing a nutrition expert (like dietitians, animal nutrition experts are specialists). Many consumers also have questions about how cows are fed. Cows are fed nutritious diet to ensure health of cow and nutrition of milk. Typical feed mixtures may include haylage (grass with a higher water content), corn silage, sugar beet pulp and a protein mineral mix.

Rest assured, your dairy products are safe. In fact, the dairy product that says it is made with cows not treated with antibiotics is the exact same as the one from a cow that may have been treated with antibiotics. Both contain no antibiotic residues. Growth hormones used in dairy also pose no known threat to human health. The human body does not even recognize the main hormone used in cows. So, regardless of what milk, yogurt, or cheese you choose, all have been produced and extensively tested to ensure they are safe for human consumption.

This post was written as part of my ongoing sponsored partnership with U.S. Farmers & Ranchers Alliance. All opinions expressed are my own and per the usual, took me hours to research and double check my facts.References (if not cited via a hyperlink in the text of this post)

References

1 Questions and Answers: 2012 Milk Drug Residue Sampling Survey. FDA.

2 NATIONAL MILK DRUG RESIDUE DATA BASE FISCAL YEAR 2014 ANNUAL REPORT October 1, 2013 – September 30, 2014 http://www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation/milk/ucm434757.pdf

3 Bovine Somatotropin (BST) http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/SafetyHealth/ProductSafetyInformation/ucm055435.htm

4 Bovine Somatotropin. National Institutes of Health, Technology Assessment Conference Statement. December 5-7, 1990. https://consensus.nih.gov/1990/1990BovineSomatotropinta007html.htm

5 Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). 1998. Toxicological evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food; Summary and conclusions. 50th report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

6 Collier RJ, Bauman DE. Update on human health concerns of recombinant bovine somatotropin use in dairy cows. J Animal Sci 2013; 92(4): 1800 – 1807. https://www.animalsciencepublications.org/publications/jas/articles/92/4/1800

7 Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone. http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancercauses/othercarcinogens/athome/recombinant-bovine-growth-hormone                  

8 Report on the Food and Drug Administration’s Review of the Safety of Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/animalveterinary/safetyhealth/productsafetyinformation/ucm130321.htm

9 Stacy Sneeringer, James MacDonald, Nigel Key, William McBride, and Ken Mathews. Economics of Antibiotic Use in U.S. Livestock Production, ERR-200, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, November 2015. http://www.ers.usda.gov/media/1950577/err200.pdf

 

 

Full Fat or Low Fat Dairy?

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If you are totally against low-fat dairy, it’s time to take a closer look at the research. After listening to this dairy debate and watching the finger pointing, I started searching through the literature for an answer to this question “does dairy fat increase LDL cholesterol and risk for cardiovascular disease?” Then I came to my senses. No one eats dairy fat. Unless you’re a food scientist, you aren’t separating the fat from milk or full-fat yogurt and eating it or adding it as an ingredient to your recipes. However, we do eat cheese and yogurt and drink milk. The array of compounds in each of these foods influences how they affect your cholesterol and risk for heart disease. So, I revised the question to: “how does full fat cheese, yogurt and milk impact cholesterol and risk for heart disease?”

Here’s what I’ll cover in this article:

  • Why people are up in arms about saturated fat – saying it is either good or bad;
  • How does full fat cheese, yogurt and milk impact cholesterol;
  • What should you do with this information?

Dairy Fat isn’t the Only Factor

The research on dairy generally follows the research on saturated fat: the replacement strategy matters. For instance, it isn’t a good idea to take cheese out of your diet and replace it with a highly refined carbohydrate (not a good move for blood fats). Butter isn’t better than liquid oil. Butter raises LDL cholesterol. Some research suggests dairy fat might raise the large, less artery clogging LDL cholesterol compared to small dense LDL. However, “less artery clogging” does not mean “not artery clogging” and this area of the science needs more work before we can draw firm conclusions. Also, there are a few differences based on the type of food (milk, cheese, yogurt, butter); aged cheese reigns.

dairy and cheddar cheese

-> Aged cheese does not raise LDL as much as butter (accounting for total fat in each). In fact, several studies show aged cheese appears to have a “relatively minor” impact on LDL cholesterol or no impact at all. This could be due to the calcium content, which leads to the excretion of some fat or, fermentation may have an effect. Aged cheese stands out in the research.

-> Yogurt appears to have less of a cholesterol raising effect than expected. However this research is inconsistent possibly due to differences in the type of bacteria in the yogurt (aka probiotics). I recommend choosing yogurt with “live and active cultures.”

– > Milk – when consuming the same amount of fat from whole milk or butter, both raise LDL to the same extent. Milk contributes substantially less total fat per amount consumed compared to full fat yogurt and butter. Cross-sectional studies suggest milk consumption doesn’t raise coronary artery disease risk, however, this may reflect lower total fat intake from milk compared to butter.

-> Cottage cheese –  this incredible food is oftentimes forgotten yet an excellent addition to your diet. I couldn’t find any studies on cottage cheese, however, the highest fat cottage cheese I could find  (4% milk fat) contained 5 g total fat per serving so we can expect the impact cottage cheese may have a lower impact compared to whole milk.

What Should You Do with this Information?

If your LDL is high, choose skim, 1% or low fat milk. Opt for a good quality yogurt with naturally occurring probiotics. As far as cheese goes – I’d take out all of the other offending foods and work on other aspects of heart health before ditching the cheese (unless your LDL is very high) and cottage cheese. However, always follow the dietary advice of your registered dietitian since there are many variables that should be taken into consideration.

What about the trans fats in dairy? They are good for you right? No. In large amounts, the trans fats in dairy have the same impact as those found in partially hydrogenated oil (not good for cholesterol, cardiovascular disease risk etc.). However, we don’t eat dairy trans fats in significant quantities (they make up very tiny amounts of dairy fat and beef fat).

Take Home Points

In general, dairy foods help lower blood pressure plus there is emerging evidence about the positive role dairy foods may play in metabolic syndrome. What about dairy fat? Consider the whole food and your diet overall so you can make the right choices based on your personal risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Also, keep in mind there are many factors that influence cardiovascular disease pathology, some of which are unrelated to cholesterol.

References

Tholstrup T, Hoy CE, Andersen LN, Christensen RD, Sandstrom B. Does fat in milk, butter and cheese affect blood lipids and cholesterol differently? J Am Coll Nutr 2004;23:169–76.

Hjerpsted J, Leedo E, Tholstrup T. Cheese intake in large amounts lowers LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared with butter intake of equal fat content. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;94:1479–84.

Biong AS, Muller H, Seljeflot I, Veierod MB, Pedersen JI. A comparison of the effects of cheese and butter on serum lipids, haemostatic variables and homocysteine. Br J Nutr 2004;92:791–7.

Nestel P. Effects of Dairy Fats within Different Foods on Plasma Lipids. J Am Coll Clin Nutr 2008, 27(6): 735S–740S.

Thorning TK et al. Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2015.

Labonté MÈ et al. Dairy product consumption has no impact on biomarkers of inflammation among men and women with low-grade systemic inflammation. J Nutr 2014;144(11):1760-7.

Sjogren P et al. Milk-derived fatty acids are associated with a more favorable LDL particle size distribution in healthy men. J Nutr 2004;134(7):1729-35.

Hodson L, Skeaff CM, Chisholm WA. The effect of replacing dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat on plasma lipids in free-living young adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001; 55(10):908-15

Soerensen KV et al. Effect of dairy calcium from cheese and milk on fecal fat excretion, blood lipids, and appetite in young men. Am J Clin Nutr 2014;99(5):984-91.

Grebe A, Latz E. Cholesterol crystals and inflammation. Curr Rheumatol Rep 2013;15(3):313.

 

 

Get Your Kids Cooking & Win Cabot Cheese & a Subscription to ChopChop Magazine

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cabot give away

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Find out how you can end food struggles with your child and enter to win $25 of Cabot cheese and a subscription to ChopChop Magazine (learn more about both below)!

Help! My Child only Eats French Fries & Chicken Nuggets!

Parents often tell me say their kids will only eat French fries and chicken nuggets. Or, their children stare at their plate because they don’t like what you served (hello! that was me!). If your child is a picky eater, I have 3 tips that will help eliminate food struggles and get your children on the path to healthy eating.

Take Your Kids Food Shopping

When we were kids my father did all of the food shopping in our family. And, he often took all three of us with him. We became very familiar with the grocery store and different types of foods within each section. As a parent, get your child involved by taking them to the grocery store or farmers market and let them be active participants. Give your children the power of choice. For instance, in the produce isle, let them choose which new fruit they want packed in their school lunch. Also, if you have a little one who is fearful of new foods, have them try a familiar food in a different form. So for instance, in the pasta isle, encourage them to pick different shapes of pasta, whole grain pasta, higher protein pasta, orzo or rice pilaf. This is a very non-threatening way to open their minds to new foods.

Teach Basic Nutrition

Teach easy nutrition facts in relatable terms. So for instance, if your 4 year old loves to color but hates most veggies you put on the table, get a coloring book about farming. ChopChop Magazine, endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics, is my go-to for fun cooking. ChopChop Magazine includes great tasting, budget conscious, easy to prepare recipes, fun food facts and pages full of beautiful pictures that will get kids interested in nutrition and cooking. ChopChop Magazine is perfect for children ages 5 to 12 and anyone new to cooking.

ChopChop

Let Them Play With Their Food

Encourage your child’s creativity during cooking and food preparation by letting them play with their food. Give them a few choices on how to prepare the food and what to combine it with. Do they want to eat their carrots raw, steamed, or in a casserole? Also,  let them make fun shapes out of their food (I love doing this!).
Kids will love making Cabot Cheddar mice from crackers, Cabot Cheddar Cheese, a cut strawberry,  mini chocolate chips, and pretzel sticks.

Cabot cheddar mice

 

Get excited about nutritious food. Kids will model your healthy eating behaviors but and pick up on your perception of different foods. Don’t apologize or say things like “you’ll have to eat your peas if you want dessert” because then your little one will relate peas with something that they shouldn’t enjoy eating.

Win a 1-year subscription to ChopChop Magazine AND a $25 Cabot Cheese gift box!

Cabot Cooperative Creamery  is a family farmer owned Creamery  that produces world-class cheddar cheese,  dips, sour cream, Greek yogurt, cream cheese, and butter.

ChopChopKids is an innovative non-profit organization whose mission is to inspire and teach kids to cook healthy food with their families. They believe that cooking and eating together as a family is a vital step in resolving the obesity and hunger epidemics. ChopChop Magazine reaches more than 2 million families each year and is endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics, was named publication of the year by the James Beard Foundation, and is a two-time winner of the Parent’s Choice Award.

They have a free ChopChop Cooking club – their national healthy cooking campaign to invite every family to join and pledge to cook dinner together once a month for 6 months.

Check out their websites:
www.chopchopmag.org
www.ChopChopCookingClub.org

To enter this contest for your chance to win, tweet your favorite way to get your kids cooking with Cabot Cheddar & tag @cabotcheese & @chopchopmagazine in your tweet. Or, “Like” ChopChop Magazine & Cabot Cooperative Creamery on Facebook and comment on both Facebook pages with your favorite way to  get kids cooking with Cabot Cheddar cheese. All entries will be blinded and the winner chosen by a 13 year old chef at 4 pm today (Oct. 30th).

Lighten Up Over the Holidays: Healthier Holiday Eating

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Gisselle Marie Rosa, UGA M.S. student

With the holiday season here, many Americans are faced with a very difficult decision: should I dive into that second serving of glazed ham and mashed potatoes delicately covered with a blanket of gravy or put the rest away for later? At this time of year, family and friends often gather together around the dinner table, sharing comfort food and stories while celebrating the holidays. But, let’s face the facts, many holiday foods aren’t the healthiest options. According to a recently published study, most Americans gain 0.5 kilograms, or about 1 pound, of weight during the holiday season.Overweight and obese individuals gain more than than those who are healthy weight.

But, if it’s only 1 measly pound over the holidays, then what’s the big deal?

While it seems that gaining 1 pound isn’t a big deal, the same study showed that most individuals don’t shed that pound over the next year. So over time those measly pounds tend to add up, increasing the individual’s risk for becoming overweight or obese.

Does this mean that you can’t eat your favorite holiday dishes?

Absolutely not! This is a special time and it is OK to enjoy the foods you love. However, there are some ways that you can modify your favorite dishes to make them more nutritious but still keep the familiar flavor that you love. Here are some tips to lighten up your holiday favorites:

  1. Appetizers/Dipping Sauces
    1. Chips, creamy dips, fried cheese sticks, potato skins, buffalo chicken poppers, you name it. These tasty snacks are one of the biggest calorie-packing culprits during the holidays. If appetizers are on the menu, opt for fresh vegetables dipped in a light ranch sauce or whole wheat pita chips dipped in a low-fat yogurt dip. Plenty of flavor, fewer calories.
  2. Mashed Potatoes
    1. This creamy dish is the quintessential holiday companion to any entrée, but many people make mashed potatoes with cheese, heavy cream, and plenty of butter. Try substituting the heavy cream for skim milk and chicken broth or roasted garlic for extra flavor while keeping the creamy texture of the potatoes.
  3. Latkes
    1. Potato Latkes are an essential part of every Hanukkah celebration, but these fried pillows of potatoes can really add a lot of fat to the holiday meal. Try mixing white and sweet potatoes to add extra vitamins and minerals to your dish. Also, make sure to use healthy oils such as olive oil to sauté the latkes instead of butter!
  4. Vegetable Casseroles
    1. While delicious, these creamy concoctions are typically filled with extra cheese, creamy condensed soups, and overcooked vegetables. Upgrade your favorite vegetable casseroles by substituting canned vegetables with frozen vegetables to decrease the sodium. Additionally, substituting some of the fried onions with slivered almonds keeps the familiar crunch while switching to low-fat cheese cuts out some of the fat and calories (or use less of a more flavorful cheese).
  5. Baked Goods
    1. Dessert during the holidays is definitely a must! A great way to cut the fat and the calories from your favorite baked goods is by substituting the oil with applesauce. Applesauce adds lots of moisture and becomes almost flavorless, making it a versatile ingredient.

Making healthy choices during the holidays may seem like a sacrifice, but it does not have to be! Done right, you can enjoy your favorite holiday comfort foods without packing on the calories or the pounds.

References

Schoeller DA. The effect of holiday weight gain on body weight. Physiology and Behavior 2014;134:66-69.