Grass Fed Lies: The Truth about Organic Milk & Grass Fed Beef

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Grass fed meat

If you’ve been sucking up the extra cost of organic dairy products and grass fed beef, comforted by the fact that you’re doing what’s good for your body, I have some news for you: you’ve gained little more than peace of mind grounded in a marketing scam. There is no meaningful nutrition difference in organic milk, grass fed beef and their conventional (non organic / grass fed) counterparts.

The Truth about Organic Dairy

Organic milk is packed with omega-3 fatty acids, iron and vitamin D, according to an article published Feb. 16 in the British Journal of Nutrition. This meta-analysis examined the results from 170 published studies comparing the nutrient content of organic milk with conventional milk. They suggest organic milk wins by a landslide: it’s nutritionally superior to its conventional counterparts. Though there were no significant differences in saturated fat and monounsaturated fat in organic vs. conventional milk, organic milk has 56% more beneficial omega-3 fatty acids, 41% more conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), significantly more vitamin E and iron than conventional milk. Statistically speaking, they are scientifically correct. Nutritionally speaking, these differences are meaningless.

Organic milk contains 56% more omega-3 fats than regular (conventional) milk (56% more based on the total fat content). However, statistically more than a little bit is still a little bit. Milk is not considered a major source of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet, regardless of milk type. In fact, according to one study, 1 cup of organic whole milk has about 8.2 mg of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 11 mg of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) compared to 6.2 mg of EPA and 9.1 mg of DHA. That’s a far cry from the 250 – 500 mg of EPA + DHA we should get, on average, each day. Fatty fish are the best way to get EPA and DHA.

milk jug
Organic Milk:
19 mg EPA + DHA

Conventional Milk:
15 mg EPA + DHA

 

 

 

Salmon

Herring, Wild
Salmon, Farmed (Atlantic)
Salmon, Wild (King)
Mackerel, Wild

1,200 mg EPA + DHA

 

 

  • EPA and DHA are heart smart – they lower blood fats (triglycerides) and blood pressure. Plus they’re good for your brain and eyes.

What about CLA? CLA is group of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in meat and milk. There are many proposed benefits associated with CLA including changes in body fat with ultra high supplemental doses of CLA. However, the difference in CLA content is also biologically meaningless – 56 mg in a glass of organic whole milk and 47 mg in a class of conventional whole milk.

The British Journal of Nutrition research also showed slightly higher beta carotene and vitamin E in organic milk. These very small differences may be due to a host of reasons including seasonal variation and breed. Milk is not a major source of these nutrients, so this has no biological impact on human health. If you want iron, eat more red meat, fish and poultry or plant-based sources including beans, lentils and peas (eat these with a vitamin C rich food to increase the absorption of plant-based iron). For vitamin E your best bets are oils, nuts and seeds.

  • Key point: statistical significance ≠ biological relevance.

What about antibiotics and hormones in dairy? I covered that in another blog post. You can read more about it here.

Is Grass Fed Beef Better?

If you’re one of many Americans paying a premium for grass fed beef because it contains more omega-3s and less saturated fat than it’s unassuming conventional counterparts, it may be time to reconsider where you’re spending your grocery money.

The omega-3s in grass fed beef are different than the kind in fatty fish. Fatty fish and algae contain EPA and DHA. There’s a third omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), found in plants including walnuts, soybeans, pumpkin seeds, flaxseeds and chia seeds. Grass fed beef contains ALA because flaxseeds are added to their feed. While EPA and DHA lower blood fats (triglycerides) and are tied to heart benefits, ALA does not lower blood fats and is not associated with the same heart health benefits. ALA rich foods also contain a variety of other bioactive compounds that may act independently or synergistically to improve cardiovascular disease risk factors (eat the whole food not just ALA). The human body can convert ALA to EPA and DHA but this conversion process is inefficient. Less than 4% of ALA is converted to EPA and less than 1% makes its way to DHA. ALA ≠EPA + DHA. A 5-ounce serving of grass fed beef contains a whopping 20 to 30 mg of ALA (slight variations in brands of grass fed beef based on the cow’s diet). The Adequate Intake for ALA is 1,600 and 1,100 grams per day for adult men and women, respectively. Eat grass fed beef and you’ll get 2 – 3% of the AI for ALA for men and 1-2% for women.

Grass fed beef and conventional beef have the same amount of saturated fat with some differences in the types of saturated fatty acids. The difference in CLA content of grass fed and conventional beef is tiny. According to a review from Dave et al. (Nutr J 2010;9:10), it ranges from 0.13 – 2.65 (grams CLA/100 grams of fat in the meat) in conventional meat and 0.43 – 5.14 (grams CLA/100 grams of fat in the meat) in grass fed beef depending on the cow and feed. So, you could be getting less total CLA in certain cuts of grass fed beef than conventional beef. 

What about the Bacteria in Conventional Beef?
You cook your beef right? Bacteria is killed during cooking. Moot point.

Is Grass Fed More Sustainable? What about Hormones and Antibiotics?
I will address this and other issues in the next post. Stay tuned….

Organic dairy products and grass fed beef come in beautiful, higher end packaging with natural hues of green and brown outlining their superiority to modest looking products that sit beside them on store shelves. If you love the taste, stick with your organic milk and grass fed beef. But don’t buy into the marketing hype.

References

Circulation 2011;123(20):2292-333.
British Journal of Nutrition 2016;115:1043–1060.
PLoS One 2013; 8(12): e82429.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001;74:612–9.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999;69:890–7.
British Medical Journal 1996;313:84–90.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;89(5):1649S-56S.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;83(6):S1526-1535.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12): e82429.
Nutrition Journal 2010, 9:10.

 

 

 

 

Tackling Concussions Head-On: How Nutrition Can Improve Outcomes

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football

I sat on the floor hunched over and crying. My elbows were raised – close to my eyes as my arms hugged my head, hands clenched at the base of my neck. My brain felt like a percussion instrument shaking inside my skull. As the pounding grew more intense the pain became unbearable. I had a concussion, my second in two years, which earned me a night in the ER.

Concussions are common in sports and recreation. Though considered a mild type of traumatic brain injury because they are usually not life-threatening, all concussions should be taken seriously. A single blow to the head can result in short-term loss of brain functioning or long-term changes in thinking, language, emotions and sensations including taste, touch and smell (1). Repeated concussions can be very dangerous and may lead to permanent changes in brain functioning or in extreme cases, death (2). Though widely recognized in football players, concussions happen in all sports – even in everyday activities – and they are occurring at younger ages. Athletes who have had one concussion have a greater risk (2 – 5.8 times higher) of experiencing another concussion (3). Multiple blows to the head could lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with poor memory, changes in personality, behavior, speech and gait (4). Posthumous examination of some former NFL players in addition to a few college football players who committed suicide revealed CTE. In March 2016, the NFL acknowledged the link between traumatic brain injury and CTE. The movie ‘Concussion,’ set for release in late December, 2015 highlights concussions in former NFL players though the league has gone to great lengths to make today’s game safer.

Decreasing the Damaging Effects from Concussions

Anyone who experiences a blow to their head or body (a forceful blow to the body can cause the brain to shake inside the skull) should be immediately examined by a physician with experience in the evaluation and management of concussions. Though the person may say they feel fine and can continue with regular activities, symptoms of concussion do not always appear immediately and may instead be delayed for several hours. Continuing to play or perform mental tasks like studying can increase severity or symptoms and cause complications including the possibility of developing permanent brain damage.

Symptoms of Concussion may include:

  • Confusion
  • Headache
  • Vision changes
  • Memory loss
  • Difficulty with coordination, clumsiness or stumbling
  • Dizziness
  • Irritability
  • Personality changes
  • Slurred speech
  • Delayed response to questions
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Sensitivity to light and noise
  • Problems sleeping
  • Seizures
  • Loss of consciousness

In addition to the symptoms that occur soon after a concussion, some people experience Post-Concussion Syndrome (PCS) days or weeks later. PCS can cause many of the same symptoms experienced after a concussion as well as trouble concentrating, apathy, depression and anxiety. Symptoms may last a few weeks. If you suspect PCS, have the patient evaluated by a psychiatrist (5).

Nutrition Management

In addition to rest, following a graduated return-to-play and school protocol, and other steps you should take to treat concussions, emerging research suggests nutrition may play an important role. Certain nutrients seem to help reduce some of the damaging effects from concussions:

Protein: 1 – 1.5 grams of protein per kg body weight per day is recommended along with sufficient calories to reduce the inflammatory response (6).

EPA and DHA Omega-3 Fatty Acids: EPA and DHA, omega-3 fatty acids found in fish and algae, increase fluidity of cell membranes, reduce inflammation and enhance cerebral blood flow (which is reduced for up to a month or longer in athletes that recover slowly) (7). Cell membranes are like gateways allowing substances to enter cells or blocking their entry. When cell membranes are more fluid (and therefore less rigid), they perform better, opening the gate for nutrients to come in. DHA, in particular, makes up 97% of the omega-3 fatty acids in the brain and is essential for normal brain functioning (8). Several animal studies show EPA and DHA supplementation before or after a traumatic brain injury helps limit structural damage and decline in brain functioning (9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15).

There is no clear consensus regarding optimal intake of EPA and DHA prior to or after a concussion. Given that many Americans do not eat enough fish and an estimated 75% of American diets are too low in EPA and DHA, it makes sense to start by meeting the general guidelines for recommended intake of EPA and DHA by:

  • Consuming fatty fish varieties that contain high levels of omega-3s, including salmon, tuna, mackerel and herring at least twice per week;
  • Take an omega-3 supplement providing EPA+DHA daily (be sure to look for high-quality fish oil, algal oil or krill oil supplements in your local grocery or health store);
  • Eat and drink DHA omega-3-fortified foods and beverages, including milk, 100% juice, and yogurt.

Research has yet to identify exactly how much EPA + DHA may be helpful after a concussion. However, according to the Food & Drug Administration (FDA), doses of EPA + DHA up to 3 grams per day are considered safe.

Zinc is necessary for optimal brain functioning while a deficiency of this mineral may compound oxidative damage from concussions. Though zinc supplementation may be an effective treatment modality, additional research needs to determine if zinc supplementation is safe after concussions. The Upper Limit for zinc is 40 mg per day.

Animal and human studies suggest creatine helps prevent secondary brain injury after traumatic brain injury. However, animal studies show long-term creatine intake may decrease its beneficial effects on the brain after injury. Future research needs to better elucidate the relationship between creatine pre-TBI and creatine post-TBI and outcomes.

Other potential approaches to addressing concussions through nutrition include ketogenic diets which are very high-fat, minimal-carbohydrate diets that are effectively used to decrease both the incidence and severity of seizures in children with epilepsy. Ketogenic diets provide an alternate energy source for brain functioning – ketones derived from the breakdown of fat. This may be important since available glucose, the primary energy source for brain functioning, may be decreased after a concussion.

Current research supports the integration of a dietitian into the team of health professionals treating concussions. Though nutrition interventions are considered preliminary at this time, consideration should be given to nutrition strategies that may reduce long-term effects while causing no further harm.

Disclosure: I am a GOED/Omega-3 Science Advisory Council Member supporting the research behind omega-3 EPA and DHA for a healthy brain, heart and eyes.

References

1 What are the Potential Effects of TBI? Injury Prevention & Control: Traumatic Brain Injury. CDC. http://www.cdc.gov/TraumaticBrainInjury/outcomes.html

Concussion (Traumatic Brain Injury). Pubmed Health.

3  Harmon KG, et al. American Medical Society for Sports Medicine position statement: concussion in sport. Br J Sports Med 2013;47:15-26. http://www.amssm.org/Content/pdf%20files/2012_ConcussionPositionStmt.pdf

4  McKee AC, Cantu RC, Nowinski CJ, Hedley-Whyte T, Gavett BE, Budson AE, Santini VE, Lee H, Kubilus CA, Stern RA. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Athletes: Progressive Tauopathy following Repetitive Head Injury. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2009; 68(7): 709–735.

Post-Concussion Syndrome. PubMed Health 

6 Nutrition and Traumatic Brain Injury: Improving Acute and Subacute Health Outcomes in Military Personnel. The National Academies Press. 2011. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/13121/nutrition-and-traumatic-brain-injury-improving-acute-and-subacute-health

7  Meier TB, Bellgowan PS, Singh R, Kuplicki R, Polanski DW, Mayer AR. Recovery of cerebral blood flow following sports-related concussion. JAMA Neurol 2015;72(5):530-8.

8 Salem N Jr, Litman B, Kim HY, Gawrisch K. Mechanisms of action of docosahexaenoic acid in the nervous system. Lipids 2001; 36(9):945-59.

9 Mills JD, Hadley K, Bailes J. Dietary supplementation with the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid in traumatic brain injury? Neurosurgery 2011;68:474–81

10 Wu A, Ying Z, Gomez-Pinilla F. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation restores mechanisms that maintain brain homeostasis in traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 2007;24:1587–95

11 Wu A, Ying Z, Gomez-Pinilla F. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids normalize BDNF levels, reduce oxidative damage, and counteract learning disability after traumatic brain injury in rats. J Neurotrauma 2004;21:1457–67

12 Wang T, Van K, Gavitt B, Grayson J, Lu T, Lyeth B, Pichakron K. Effect of fish oil supplementation in a rat model of multiple mild traumatic brain injuries. Restor Neurol Neurosci 2013;31:647–59

13 Mills JD, Bailes J, Sedney C, Hutchins H, Sears B. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and reduction of traumatic axonal injury in a rodent head injury model. J Neurosurg 2011;114:77–84

14 Wu A, Ying Z, Gomez-Pinilla F. The salutary effects of DHA dietary supplementation on cognition, neuroplasticity, and membrane homeostasis after brain trauma. J Neurotrauma 2011;28:2113–22

15  Wu A, Ying Z, Gomez-Pinilla F. Exercise facilitates the action of dietary DHA on functional recovery after brain trauma. Neuroscience 2013;248:655–63

Help Dry Eyes with Better Nutrition

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Tears protect your eyes from dust, infections and pollution. And therefore, those with chronic dry eye, caused by either a decrease in tear production (the prescription drug Restasis helps this) or tears that evaporate too quickly, may notice their eyes are frequently so dry they hurt, sting or feel gritty. In addition, chronic dry eye can lead to blurred vision, heightened sensitivity to light or smoke/pollution, excessive tearing, or like someone took sandpaper and rubbed it on them. There are a number of causes of chronic dry eye including Lasik surgery, thyroid disorders, and certain autoimmune diseases (including Sjogren’s syndrome, which causes drying of the mucus membranes including the eyes, mouth and sinuses). If left untreated chronic dry eye can lead to irritation, inflammation, blurred vision, increased risk of developing an eye infection, and scarring of the cornea.

How can you soothe chronic dry eyes? Follow these steps:

  • First and foremost – see an ophthalmologist.
  • Drink plenty of fluid every day.
  • Eat fatty fish at least twice per week or consider a fish oil supplement (always tell your physician about any dietary supplements you are taking). I typically recommend at least 1 gram of EPA + DHA combined (check the label to see how much EPA and DHA the product contains per serving; EPA and DHA are the omega 3 fatty acids found in fish). Two grams decreases inflammation throughout the body.
  • Consider caffeine in moderation. One study found that caffeine may help increase tear production.
  • Cut down on antihistamine use if possible. Allegra, Zyrtec and other antihistamines can increase dryness. Decongestants also increase dry eye so weigh the benefits versus side effects before using them.
  • Use eye drops for dry eyes (not those for redness).
  • Put warm compresses on your eyes for 10-15 minutes at a time.
  • Cut down on diuretics unless they are prescribed by your physician.
  • Talk to your physician about all of your medications. Certain blood pressure drugs, birth control pills and other prescription medications can increase dryness.
  • Take breaks from the computer, TV, iPad and other electronics. Starring at these for hours may further decrease tear production.

Feast on Fish for Your Heart

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Salmon dinner from Foodie Buddha
Salmon Nigiri from Foodie Buddha

By Collier Perno

If you’re among the 60% of Americans with elevated blood pressure I’m sure you’ve heard your doctors say these things: “lower your sodium intake,” “increase your physical activity,” and “decrease your alcohol consumption.” While these are all great recommendations, new research has shows there is an alternative treatment that may be even better at lowering blood pressure: the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and decosahexaenoic acid (DHA)4.

Omega-3 fatty acids are an essential (the human body can’t make them) polyunsaturated fat. There are three main types of omega-3s, EPA, DHA and alpha linolenic acid (ALA). EPA and DHA are found in cold-water fish, fish oil, and algae and are crucial for brain development, reducing inflammation, protecting structural cell integrity, and they may help decrease muscle soreness in athletes1.

In March of 2014, the American Journal of Hypertension released a comprehensive meta analysis (a statistical method for combining the results of several studies) that examined 70 randomized controlled trials studying the effect EPA and DHA on blood pressure (BP). Participants were adults with normal BP and adults with high blood pressure who were not taking BP lowering medications. Subjects were given EPA and DHA omega-3s in the form of seafood, fortified foods, or dietary supplements. The results of the study showed a decrease in both systolic and diastolic BP in all adults. The most significant effects were found in those with existing high BP. There was an average 4.51 mm Hg decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was reduced by an average 3.05 mm Hg4.

The analysis also compared common lifestyle recommendations and their effects on BP to EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids effects on BP. The findings were astonishing. When looking at SBP (the top number – this reflects the pressure in your arteries when your heart beats), consumption of EPA and DHA omega-3 had an average decrease of 4.51 mm Hg, while reduced dietary sodium had an average reduction of 3.6 mm Hg, and decreased alcohol consumption had an average 3.8 mm Hg decrease. The only lifestyle recommendation shown to have a greater decrease in SBP was increased physical activity, which lowered SBP by 4.6 mmHg.

Still not sold on the benefits of consuming omega-3? There’s more! Over the past two decades, some research has linked the consumption of omega-3 fish oils to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the U.S. killing about 600,000 Americans each year (that’s 1 in every 4 deaths)2. As previously discussed, omega-3s reduce BP levels (a major risk factor for heart disease) and lower triglyceride levels. A study published in the Journal of American Medical Association concluded consumption of omega-3 fatty acids creates a significant cardioprotective effect in non-hypertensive individuals3.

How do I get my omega-3 fatty acids?

  • The American Heart Association recommends eating fish at least twice a week to increase omega-3 dietary intake
  • Fatty fish such as mackerel, lake trout, sardines, herring, albacore tuna, and salmon are all great sources of omega 3 fatty acids
  • Eating walnuts, flax seeds, soy beans, kidney beans, and tofu are other great ways to increase your omega 3 consumption. These provide Alpha- Linoleic Acid (ALA) form of omega 3s.
  • When looking for omega 3 supplements choose nordic naturals or any supplement that is USP certified. Costco’s Kirkland brand is a great option!
  1. Omega-3 fatty acids | University of Maryland Medical Center. Omega-3 Fat. Acids. Available at: http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/omega3-fatty-acids. Accessed November 12, 2014.
  2. CDC – DHDSP – Heart Disease Facts. Am. Heart Dis. Facts. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/facts.htm. Accessed November 12, 2014.
  3. Key Messages for JAMA/Annals of Internal Medicine Studies. Journal of American Medical Association. Accessed November 12, 2014.
  1. Cid, Martha. Omega-3s Can Significantly Reduce Blood Pressure, Study Finds.     Global Organization for EPA and DHA Omega-3s. Accessed November 12,20