Gluten free blueberry cottage cheese pancakes

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Gluten free blueberry cottage cheese pancakes

Ingredients:
Makes about eighteen 4-5” pancakes
· 3/4 cup gluten free all purpose flour
· 1/2 cup almond flour (make you own, tip below)
· 1/2 tsp. baking soda
· 1/2 tsp. sea salt
· 2 Tbsp. Swerve sweetener
· 2 eggs 1 cup whipped cottage cheese (*whip your own in a blender or food   processor until smooth)
· 1/2 cup 2% milk · 2 Tbsp. pecan, sunflower, safflower or other medium-high heat oil
· 1.5 cups blueberries
· Cooking spray (I used Pompeian grapeseed oil spray)
Directions
Rinse blueberries with water and blot dry with a paper towel. Set blueberries aside on a plate. In a bowl, stir together gluten free all purpose flour, almond flour, baking soda, salt and Swerve sweetener. In a separate bowl, whisk together eggs, whipped cottage cheese, milk and oil. Add flour mixture to egg mixture and whisk or stir until just blended. Blend in blueberries.
Lightly coat a large frying pan or skillet with cooking spray then heat over low – medium heat. Pour small amounts (about 1/2 cup) of batter onto the skillet. Flip each pancake when golden brown underneath and partly cooked. Move to plates and enjoy!
Nutrition information per pancake:
Calories: 71
Fat: 2 g
Carbohydrate: 6 g
Fiber: 0.8 g
Protein: 4 g

 

Is TMAO from Fish, Meat and Eggs Harmful?

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In another confusing nutrition story that should be titled “is there anything left for us to eat?” recent research threw a curveball. Fish, a staple of the Mediterranean diet, as well as meat and eggs may be doing more harm than good thanks to a compound called trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). TMAO is found in fish and produced in the body after eating meat and eggs. TMAO is linked to greater risk for heart attack, stroke and death; yet the research isn’t crystal clear. Is it time to give up fish meat and eggs or ignore the recent media headlines?

This post will cover:

  • TMAO: More than a Gut Reaction—What gives us higher TMAO levels?
  • TMAO and health?
  • The bottom line

TMAO: More than a Gut Reaction

Blood levels of TMAO are ~ 50 times higher after eating fish compared to eggs or beef. The human body absorbs intact TMAO like the kind found in fish, easily. However, the human body’s production of TMAO, after eating foods containing the essential nutrient choline (found in eggs and meat) and the compound l-carnitine (found in meat and pork and in much smaller quantities in chicken breast and dairy products), depends on the makeup of bacteria in your gut, kidney functioning and genetics.

In one study, regular meat eaters produced more TMAO than a vegetarian did after eating steak (which contains ~ 180 mg of l-carnitine). After wiping out their gut bacteria with antibiotics, the carnivores didn’t produce any TMAO after consuming 250 mg l-carnitine. The makeup of gut bacteria in the habitual meat eaters was presumably responsible for greater TMAO production compared to the vegetarian, yet this was a small study and we don’t know anything else about the participants’ diet. Was it the meat that altered gut bacteria or something else in their diet? After all, a steady diet of red meat may mean double cheeseburgers on white bread with regular servings of French fries and soda on the side. This isn’t exactly the diet you want for promoting good bacteria in your gut.

Another study found blood levels of TMAO were greater in those with a less diverse makeup of microbes and greater amounts of a less healthy type of bacteria (firmicutes), compared to one that is healthy (bacteroidetes). A diet higher in saturated fat will promote this environment.

While bacteria seem to influence TMAO production from l-carnitine, l-carnitine also influences the makeup of gut bacteria. A study in mice found those with their gut bacteria wiped out thanks to antibiotics produced a different makeup of bacteria in the gut after consuming l-carnitine while also doubling the risk of plaque buildup in their arteries.

Higher TMAO levels come from:

  • Eating fish
  • Less diverse array of gut bacteria and increased levels of bad versus good bacteria
  • Consuming l-carnitine (mouse study)

TMAO and Health

A few human studies found higher blood levels of TMAO were associated with greater risk for heart disease. However, all research isn’t pointing in the same direction. One study in over 300 patients found blood TMAO levels were not associated with heart attack or heart disease over the course of eight years, following the initial test for TMAO. However, TMAO levels were higher in those with diabetes, patients with metabolic syndrome and those with declining kidney functioning. Another study examined over 800 people between the age of 33 and 55 and found blood TMAO levels were not associated with clogged arteries, insulin resistance (this comes before type 2 diabetes) and inflammatory markers or negative changes in blood lipids suggesting TMAO levels might not contribute significantly to the progression of clogged arteries. However, this study shows TMAO levels were significantly lower than in previous research, showing an association between TMAO and heart disease.

TMAO is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In those with type 2 diabetes, higher TMAO levels are associated with greater risk for death, heart attack, heart failure and unstable angina (chest pain). Also, higher levels of circulating TMAO are associated with higher risk of death in those with chronic kidney disease and greater risk of certain cancers. Yet, there are several confounding factors. Fish is the primary culprit for higher acute circulating TMAO levels, yet fish-based diets are associated with reduced risk for heart disease. Also, levels of TMAO are dependent upon disease state and the makeup of gut bacteria. Therefore, at this time it isn’t entirely clear which came first – does TMAO cause disease or does TMAO increase due to disease?

The Bottom Line

The story on TMAO isn’t crystal clear, so there’s no reason to avoid fish, meat and eggs in an effort to decrease TMAO levels. All three of these foods are good sources of several nutrients important for health. Though processed red meats are linked to higher risk of colorectal and stomach cancers, when cooked appropriately (lower, moist heat for example) red meat can fit into a healthy diet and deliver important nutrients including iron, zinc and vitamin B12. Eggs are an economical source of protein and contain many nutrients and compounds that contribute to health including two antioxidants important for eyesight.

Though there is no reason to completely avoid these foods, you can alter your diet to help diversify gut bacteria and also increase the amount of good versus bad bacteria. Probiotic rich foods such as yogurt and kefir with live and active cultures, miso soup, tempeh and other fermented foods contain good bacteria. Fiber-rich plant foods (fruits, vegetables, legumes) are important food sources for bacteria to thrive in your body.

Disclosure: this post was sponsored by USFRA. All views are my own and backed by research.

References
Koeth RA, Wang Z, Levison BS et al. Intestinal microbiota metabolism of l-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis. Nat Med 2013 Apr 7.

Cho CE, Caudill MA. Trimethylamine-N-Oxide: Friend, Foe, or Simply Caught in the Cross-Fire? Trends Endocrinol Metab 2016 Nov 4. [Epub ahead of print]

Cho CE, Taesuwan S, Malsheva OV, Bender E, Tulchinsky NF, Yan J, Sutter JL, Caudill MA. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) response to animal source foods varies among healthy young men and is influenced by their gut microbiota composition: A randomized controlled trial. Mol Nutr Food Res 2016 Jul 5.

Carnitine. Health Professional Fact Sheet, NIH. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Carnitine-HealthProfessional/

Mueller DM, Allenspach M, Othman A, Saely CH, Muendlein A, Vonbank A, Drexel H, von Eckardstein A. Plasma levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide are confounded by impaired kidney function and poor metabolic control.Atherosclerosis 2015;243(2):638-44.

Meyer KA, Benton TZ, Bennett BJ, Jacobs DR Jr., Lloyd-Jones DM, Gross MD, Carr JJ, Gordon-Larsen P, Zeisel SH. Microbiota-Dependent Metabolite Trimethylamine N-Oxide and Coronary Artery Calcium in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA). J Am Heart Assoc. 2016 Oct 21;5(10). pii: e003970.

The Truth about Cage-free, Free-range, No Antibiotics, Humanely Raised

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Nutrition claims are confusing. How do you know if you should pay more for a carton of eggs or package of meat based on a claim on the package? Is it legit, or made up by a marketing team to make their food stand out from competitive products on grocery store shelves? This post will help you sort through the confusion on common food claims including cage-free, free-range, antibiotic-free and differences in egg quality scores so you can choose which option is best for you.


free-range, cage-free eggs

Eggs: Cage-Free, Free-Range & AA, A and B Quality

Cage-free (eggs) – “cage-free” refers to the environment the hens (hens lay eggs) live in. Cage-free hens are housed in an environment allowing unlimited access to food, water and freedom to roam. There is no known nutrition difference in eggs produced by hens that are cage-free versus those that are not cage-free1.

AA quality eggs – the shells must be “clean, unbroken and practically normal.” Also, the white must be clear and reasonably firm, with a clear distinction between white and yolk. The yolk must be free from apparent defects. The air cell—the part of the egg that separates the inner shell membrane from the outer shell membrane—for AA quality eggs must not exceed 1/8 inch2.

A quality eggs – the only difference between AA and A quality eggs is the air cell. The air cell for A quality eggs must not exceed 3/16 of an inch2.

B quality eggs – the shells must be unbroken, but may be abnormal or have slightly stained areas. Shells with prominent stains or dirt are not permitted. The egg white can be weak and watery, while the yoke may be dark and large and flattened. Small blood or meat spots may be present2.

Meat and Dairy Claims

Pasture-raised, free-range, free-roaming – the animals have continuous, unrestricted access to pasture (land covered with grass and other plants) throughout their lives. Cattle and sheep must not be confined to a feedlot. Pigs must have continuous access to pasture for at least 80% of their life. You might see “free-range – never confined to feedlot,” on your meat3.

Antibiotic-free or No Antibiotics – all meat, milk and other dairy products are free from antibiotics. Therefore, a package of meat that says “antibiotic-free” is no different from the one next to it that does not carry this claim. When an animal is on antibiotics, their milk is not sold, and they cannot be slaughtered for meat. Instead, the farmer must wait until all traces of medication have cleared the animal’s body before the cow can be milked or the animal can be sent for slaughter. For more on this topic as related to milk, click here.

Humanely raised – this term makes me think of a farmer who knows each animal by name; pets and cares for them daily while attending to their needs. However, this isn’t the case. “Humanely raised” is a term made up by food companies. There is no formal definition and therefore, it is up to the food company to decide what they consider humanely raised. Ignore it. 

Naturally raised – there is no official definition for naturally raised. Therefore, this claim could mean anything. Ignore it.

Grass-fed – there is no universally accepted, standardized definition for the term grass-fed. All cows, sheep and goats eat grass for most of their lives. However, some of these animals are grain-finished—they spend several months on a grain-based diet until they reach their ideal weight. At this time, their diet consists of grains, grass, vitamin and mineral mixes, citrus pulp and other feed as determined by an animal nutritionist based on their dietary needs. Other animals are grass-finished, they consume grass their entire life, and may be given vitamin and mineral mixes as needed. There are no nutrition differences between grain-finished and grass-finished meat.

Food is a very competitive business. Consumers may choose a product based on a variety of factors including great packaging, superior taste and good nutrition value. Food claims may sway your decision; however, be sure you’re getting what you are paying for. Look for claims that are backed by a standardized definition, versus those with no definition.

This post was sponsored by USFRA, all views are my own.

References

  1. Questions and Answers About Shell Eggs. USDA Agricultural Marketing Service.
  1. United States Standards, Grades and Weight Classes for Shell Eggs AMS 56. USDA.
  1. Federal Register. Vol. 67, No. 250. United States Standards for Livestock and Meat Marketing Claims. 67 FR 79552. Federal Department of Agriculture.

Top 10 Flat Belly Foods

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Your abs are made in the gym and revealed in the kitchen. A good training program develops the muscles in your midsection and the right diet helps banish bloating so you can see your abs. Here are the 10 flat belly foods you should add to your diet for a better looking (and better feeling) mid-section):Greek yogurt for belly fat

Greek Yogurt with Live and Active Cultures

Look for Greek yogurt with “live cultures (aka good bacteria)” or the “Live & Active Cultures” seal. The cultures are good bacteria that take up valuable real estate in your gut, helping your body digest food and decreasing gas and bloating. The amount of healthy, versus harmful, bacteria influences body weight and how much weight you can lose while following a lower calorie diet. Plus, a study published in the International Journal of Obesity found people who get their calcium from yogurt, as opposed to other foods, may lose more weight in their belly. Even more evidence to support yogurt consumption comes from a study showing dieters who ate five servings of dairy, such as Greek yogurt, daily lost more weight and abdominal fat than those who ate just three servings every day. A more recent review of the research found higher dairy intake was associated with lower risk of obesity in the midsection and yogurt seems to help keep weight in check.

2 Nuts

Though nuts are relatively high in calories for a small amount of food,  people don’t gain weight when they add nuts to their previously nut-free diet. A study in over 13,000 adults revealed nut eaters, those who ate at least ¼ ounce of nuts or peanuts (technically a legume) per day had smaller waists than adults who didn’t eat nuts. Additionally, tree nuts and peanuts contain a considerable amount of monounsaturated fat. Dieters who eat more foods containing monounsaturated fats may lose more belly fat than those who eat the same number of calories per day with less monounsaturated fat.

3 Asparagus

When examining dietary patterns, weight and waist circumference in close to eighty thousand people over a 10-year period, researchers found those who ate more vegetables every day had both a lower BMI and smaller waistline compared to adults who ate few vegetables. Asparagus contains prebiotic fiber, a type of fiber that is food for the good bacteria in your gut. Plus, asparagus is a natural mild diuretic making it the perfect food before hitting the beach or wearing a more formfitting outfit.

4 Avocados

Avocados contain a good amount of monounsaturated fat, not to mention nineteen vitamins and minerals. But, their monounsaturated fat is the ticket to a smaller waistline. In one study scientists gave obese adults with type 2 diabetes diets rich in saturated fat, monounsaturated fat or  carbohydrates. Those on the high carbohydrate diet ended up with fat redistributed to their stomachs while the monounsaturated fat rich diet prevented fat redistribution to the belly area. Plus, a look at dietary intake data from close to 18,000 adults found body weight, BMI and waist size were all significantly lower in avocado consumers versus those who didn’t include avocados in their diet.

5 Popcorn

Popcorn is a whole grain and when you pop it yourself on the stovetop (or in a brown paper bag in the microwave, just add good old fashioned popcorn kernels in a brown paper bag and fold the top) and top it with a little spray butter or spices for flavor, you’ll end up with a snack that takes a long time to eat and fills you up on relatively few calories. In addition, several studies show people who eat about three servings of whole grains per day weight less and have a smaller waistline compared to those who don’t.

6 Cold Pea Salad

Peas are naturally rich in resistant starch, a type of fiber that isn’t completely broken down or absorbed during digestion. Cooking and cooling peas to make a pea salad will significantly increase the amount of resistant starch they content. Rodent studies show resistant starch helps reduce stomach fat and increase hormones that tell the brain it’s time to stop eating.

7 Eggs

Choose eggs over cereal in the morning and you’ll tame hunger pangs for hours after breakfast, decreasing the likelihood of overeating later in the day. Make a meal containing at least 25 – 30 total grams of protein (the protein is in the white of the egg so this equates to 4 – 5 egg whites though you can choose any combination of whole eggs and egg whites as long as you consume at least 4 -5 of the whites) so you can cash in on the satiety-enhancing benefits of eggs. Added bonus: following a high protein diet for a short period of time can lead to significant reductions in belly fat.

8 Green Tea

The combination of caffeine and antioxidants in green tea may lead to small to moderate reductions in body fat and waist size. However, you need to consume quite a bit of it so get creative and cook with green tea by brewing it and using it to cook rice (it’s particularly good with jasmine rice), make stews, soups or stocks. You can also poach fruit green tea or use dried green tea leaves as part of a rub for meats, tofu or fish.

9 Barley

Barley is a cereal grain with a nutty taste and consistency that is a cross between pasta and rice. In a double-blinded trial (both the men and the researchers didn’t know which food they were getting), Japanese men were given rice or a mixture of rice with pearl barley. The group receiving the pearl barley and rice mixture lost a significant amount of visceral fat, the kind that covers your organs like a thick winter blanket and increases risk of heart disease, stroke and type-2 diabetes. Compared to the rice only group, the group who ate pearl barley decreased their waist size.

10 Blueberries

Blueberries are an excellent source of dietary fiber, which will not only help keep you full but also help keep your waistline in check. Plus they are a natural source of prebiotic fiber – the kind that the good bacteria in your gut munch on.

A flat belly is one of the most recognized signs of a fit body. Blast away abdominal fat with high-intensity cardio and build the underlying muscle by regularly switching up your training program. Also, incorporate a 30-minute abs classes to your routine. At least one study found you can spot reduce if you exercise the same muscle group for at least 30 minutes at a time. Keep in mind abs are made in the gym but revealed in the kitchen. Add the top 10 flat belly foods to your diet while cutting down on sugar alcohols (sorbitol, maltitol, and mannitol are the worst for causing gas and bloating), fizzy drinks and chewing gum (all of these can increase bloating at least temporarily) and you may fall in love with skinny jeans.

 

References
Clifton PM, Bastiaans K, Keogh JB. High protein diets decrease total and abdominal fat and improve CVD risk profile in overweight and obese men and women with elevated triacylglycerol. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2009;19(8):548-54.

O’Neil CE1, Keast DR, Nicklas TA, Fulgoni VL 3rd. Nut consumption is associated with decreased health risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome in U.S. adults: NHANES 1999-2004. J Am Coll Nutr 2011;30(6):502-10.

Kahn HS, Tatham LM, Rodriguez C, et al. Stable behaviors associated with adults’ 10-year change in the body mass index and likelihood of gain at waist. Am J Public Health 1997;87:747-54.

Ridaura VK, Faith JJ, Rey FE, Cheng J, Duncan AE et al. Gut microbiota from twins discordant for obesity modulate metabolism in mice. Science 2013;341:6150.

Turnbaugh PJ, Ley RE, Mahowald MA, Magrini V et al. An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest. Nature 2006;444:1027-1031.

Vidrine K, Ye J, Martin RJ, McCutcheon KL et al. Resistant starch from high amylose maize (HAM-RS2) and dietary butyrate reduce abdominal fat by a different apparent mechanism. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2014;22(2):344-8.

Bisanz JE, Reid G. Unraveling how probiotic yogurt works. Sci Transl Med 2011;3:106.

Dhurandhar NV, Geurts L, Atkinson RL et al. Harnessing the beneficial properties of adipogenic microbes for improving human health. Obesity Reviews 2013;19:721-735.

Delzenne NM, Neyrinck AM, Bäckhed F, Cani PD. Targeting gut microbiota in obesity: effects of prebiotics and probiotics. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2011;7(11):639-46.

Furet JP, Kong LC, Tap J et al. Differential adaptation of human gut microbiota to bariatric surgery-induced weight loss: links with metabolic and low-grade inflammation markers. Diabetes 2010;59:3049-3057.

Ley RE, Turnbaugh PJ, Klein S, Gordon JI. Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature 2006;444: 1022–1023.

Santacruz A, Marcos A, Warnberg J et al. Interplay Between Weight Loss and Gut Microbiota Composition in Overweight Adolescents. Obesity 2009;17:1906–1915.

Harland JI, Garton LE. Whole-grain intake as a marker of healthy body weight and adiposity. Public Health Nutr 2008;11(6):554-63.

Yadav BS, Sharma A, Yadav RB. Studies on effect of multiple heating/cooling cycles on the resistant starch formation in cereals, legumes and tubers. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2009;60 Suppl 4:258-72.

Keenan MJ, Zhou J, McCutcheon KL et al. Effects of resistant starch, a non-digestible fermentable fiber, on reducing body fat. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2006;14(9):1523-34.

Nagao T, Komine Y, Soga S et al. Ingestion of a tea rich in catechins leads to a reduction in body fat and malondialdehyde-modified LDL in men. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81(1):122-9.

Paniagua JA, Gallego de la Sacristana A, Romero I et al. Monounsaturated fat-rich diet prevents central body fat distribution and decreases postprandial adiponectin expression induced by a carbohydrate-rich diet in insulin-resistant subjects. Diabetes Care 2007;30(7):1717-23.

Fulgoni VL 3rd, Dreher M, Davenport AJ. Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2008. Nutr J 2013;12:1.

Shimizu C, Kihara M, Aoe S et al. Effect of high beta-glucan barley on serum cholesterol concentrations and visceral fat area in Japanese men–a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2008;63(1):21-5.

Du H, van der A DL, Boshuizen HC et al. Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91(2):329-36.

Peters EM, Anderson R, Nieman DC, et al. Vitamin C supplementation attenuates the increases in circulating cortisol, adrenaline and anti-inflammatory polypeptides following ultramarathon running. Int J Sports Med 2001;22(7):537-43.

 

Which Fat is Best for Heart Health?

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Butter

If you are more confused than ever about dietary fats, you’re not alone. Can a high fat diet help you lose body fat? Which fat is best for heart health – butter, coconut oil or vegetable oil?

What is Cholesterol & Why is it Essential?
Cholesterol is an essential component of all cell membranes and a precursor to hormones, vitamin D and bile acids (needed for the digestion of fat). It is so important that your body regulates cholesterol balance to ensure your cells receive a continuous supply of cholesterol.

How does High LDL Contribute to Cardiovascular Disease?

Though cholesterol is critical for life, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, is considered a risk factor for heart disease because excess LDL can lead to an increase in plaque buildup in your arteries. Think of this process like a garden hose with gunk stuck in it. The gunk interferes with water flowing through the hose. If too much debris gets in there, no water will flow through.  Likewise, plaque in your arteries will decrease the amount of blood that moves through your arteries at one time and a complete blockage could lead to a heart attack or stroke.  Now, this is a simplistic view, especially considering LDL isn’t just one particle but instead, several that contain different amounts of cholesterol. Some research suggests that smaller, more dense LDL particles are more artery clogging. However, in addition to particle size, total number of LDL particles and oxidation of LDL contribute to the disease process.

As LDL particles travel through the bloodstream, excess LDL particles can stick to artery walls (particularly walls that are damaged due to smoking, high blood pressure and other insults). Trapped LDL becomes oxidized and sets off an inflammatory cascade resulting in the development of plaque (gunk) stuck to arteries – atherosclerosis.

Coronary Artery Disease

How Can I Lower my LDL Cholesterol?

Cholesterol in food has little effect on your blood cholesterol.

Years ago we were told to stay away from shrimp, eggs and other high cholesterol foods. Yet this advice wasn’t based on sound science – cholesterol in food has little effect on your blood cholesterol levels. So there is no need to take these nutrient-rich foods out of your diet. Shrimp is loaded with protein, and is a good source of iron plus it contains just 80 calories per serving. Eggs are also packed with nutrition – the whites are an excellent source of protein and the yellow color you see in the yolk is from antioxidants – plant compounds that protect plants from disease and protect your body from the damaging effects of free radicals, compounds that are essential but can cause damage as well.

Coconut Oil, Butter and Other Solid Fats are Not the Best Options

Man-made trans fats (partially hydrogenated oils) are the worst kind of fat you can eat. However, they should, finally, be making their way out of our food supply over the next few years. High levels of *saturated fat, the kind that is solid at room temperature like butter, increases HDL (the “good” cholesterol but not a target of therapy – doctors don’t focus on HDL levels because increasing HDL does not lower heart disease risk) and LDL cholesterol in the blood. In controlled diet experiments where saturated fat is replaced with polyunsaturated fat rich vegetable oils, risk of heart disease is reduced. Replacing saturated fat with monounsaturated fat, the kind found in olive oil, also lowers LDL but not to the extent that polyunsaturated fat does.

Coconut oil is popular and calorie for calorie it might be better for weight management than other fats. However, coconut oil raises our total, good and bad cholesterol levels. And therefore, it is not the best option for heart health.

Excess Carbohydrate Intake can Increase LDL

Overconsumption of carbohydrate-rich foods can also increase VLDL cholesterol (very low density lipoprotein). Foods with added sugars, in particular, are potent stimulators of VLDL production when the energy (calories) aren’t needed right away for energy or increasing glycogen stores (stored carbohydrate in your liver and muscle).

Best Fats for Your Heart

Nuts, seeds, avocados, olives and liquid oils are your bets for heart health. Oils with more polyunsaturated fat have a greater impact on LDL cholesterol than those rich in monounsaturated fat. Make sure you are choosing the right oil for the right cooking application. Many oils can’t stand high heat and they break down, damaging the structure (and function) of the oil.

Fatty Acids in Oils

Conclusion

Many factors contribute to high blood cholesterol levels, including genetics, overweight/obesity, inactivity, smoking, diabetes and age, making cholesterol management a multifactorial issue. Saturated fat increases LDL cholesterol but, as I’ll say over and over, we are all different and, people vary in their response to dietary saturated fat due to intrinsic differences in fat metabolism as well as other factors including obesity, insulin resistance and high triglycerides.

Replace fats that raise cholesterol with liquid oils, nuts, seeds, avocados, and olives. Consider your overall diet as well. Eat a plant-based diet including vegetables (non-starchy veggies as well as beans, lentils and peas), fruits, nuts, seeds and whole grains (oats, barley etc.). Consume fatty fish ( salmon, mackerel, herring, halibut, sardines etc.) at least two times per week. Limit your intake of foods with added sugars and refined starches as well as your alcohol consumption. 

* There are differences in specific saturated fatty acids and their effects on blood cholesterol. Therefore, some foods high in saturated fat do not raise LDL cholesterol. Also, oils have a different array of vitamins (primarily vitamin E) and plant-based compounds that may be beneficial for heart health.

Fatty acids composition of oils taken from the USDA Nutrient Database.

How Managing Food Allergies Helps Drew Brees Perform Better & Recover Quickly

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If you could make one change to your diet that made you feel a thousand times better every day what would it be? For those suffering from food allergies, the answer lies in cutting those foods out of their diet. Symptoms of food allergies range from life threatening anaphylactic shock to itching of the mouth, hives and rashes. But for me, and apparently Drew Brees as well, eating those foods we are allergic to means you feel like you you’ve been hit head on by a Mack Truck (or in Brees case, maybe a 320 lb. O-Lineman). Brees said he noticed an amazing difference in his energy levels and recovery after he had been tested and cut out all foods he is allergic to. And, that resonated with me.
I loved listening to both Drew and Brittany this past weekend at Expo West, the largest trade show in the natural, organic and healthy products industry, not because he is a pro football player (I work with a number of pro athletes so that’s nothing new to me) but because I love learning about the person behind the profile and what they are passionate about. In a Sports Illustrated kind of way I saw a glimpse of someone who uses his status to further his causes, to give back, and as part of the President’s Council on Fitness, Sports & Nutrition, to make a difference in the lives of others through fitness, sports and nutrition, a cause near and dear to my heart. Drew and Brittany’s message was simple – what you put in your body can improve your health. Drew also mentioned that people shouldn’t feel ashamed because they are coping with something like food allergies.

The Brees family has teamed up with So Delicious, a company that makes incredibly tasty dairy free beverages and desserts (my favorites are everything coconut flavored in their line!).  For those who need dairy free products or even those who don’t, So Delicious is definitely worth a try. And for those suffering from other food allergies, rest assured, companies like the ones who exhibited at Expo West are rapidly coming out with “free from” products that do not include the major foods people are allergic too including eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, soy and wheat.

Post Workout Nutrition – what do you really need?

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Are you confused about what to consume post workout? RD-to-be Sara Shipley breaks down the basics and provides excellent suggestions for post workout nutrition:

We’ve heard it all before: “You need protein after a workout!”

But why? And how much? Will two scoops of any protein powder in your morning smoothie cover all of your bases? Maybe, but here’s what else you need to know about properly refueling and repairing your muscles so you can get back to your life and get ready for tomorrow’s workout.

After strenuous activity our muscle tissue is damaged (this is normal) and our glycogen (carbohydrate stored in our muscle) is depleted. And, depending on how much fluid you consumed while exercising, you may also need to replace a good amount of fluid lost through sweat (and possibly electrolytes too). The right combination of protein, carbohydrate and fluids consumed post-workout will help your muscles recover faster with less soreness and fatigue. Here’s a breakdown on how much you should take:

Protein will help your muscles repair and build new muscle tissue (especially after a bout of resistance training). You can consume protein rich foods or sports supplements for convenience. However, you should aim for a minimum of 25 grams after resistance training (lifting weights for instance) and at least 10 grams after endurance training. If you are choosing food-based sources of protein opt for lean, high quality protein such as egg whites, skinless chicken, turkey breast, 1% cottage cheese, low-fat yogurt.

Carbohydrate is the fuel that powers your workouts. Your body’s stores of carbohydrate, in the form of glycogen, last about 2 hours (less if you are exercising very intensely). And, we now that athletic performance suffers when our carbohydrate stores become depleted. Therefore, carbs post-workout are vital to replacing glycogen stores. Aim for at least 60-75 grams or more. Bagels, pretzels and pasta are all good bets. If you aren’t hungry, try liquid carbs in the form of a sports drink or flavored milk.

Hydration and electrolytes are lost through sweat. And, drinking during your workout may seem like a no brainer, but sometimes you can’t quite makeup for your fluid losses through sweat. If your workout was intense, you need to replace electrolytes (primarily sodium) lost through sweat as well (especially if you are a salty sweater as evidenced by white salt crystals on your face, ears or neck). Sports drinks are a great way to re-hydrate or you can opt for other hydrating beverages (water, juice, milk) consumed in combination with salty foods.

Another thought to consider: post-workout inflammation. Some inflammation is good but too much inflammation may slow the recovery process. So, choose foods that may help combat inflammation including tart cherry juice (or eat cherries), mango, fresh pineapple whey protein and deeply colored fruits and vegetables.

Some of my favorite post-workout foods:

  • chocolate milk
  • eggs on a toasted whole wheat English muffin, with a sprinkle of cheese
  • cottage cheese with sliced cherry tomatoes and whole grain pretzels
  • Greek yogurt with blueberries and whole grain granola
  • soup with grilled cheese (bonus – great for replacing sodium!)
  • skinless grilled chicken and wholegrain brown rice
  • whole grain pita filled with hummus, grilled veggies and a dollop of plain yogurt, paired with a large glass of milk
  • Clif or Luna bar
  • Sports drink
  • Smoothie made with whey protein, any mix of berries, skim milk and ice (you can also add mango or pineapple)

 

 

 

Protect Your Vision with These Nutrients

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Sports nutrition is an exciting field of study fueled by how nutrition can help an athlete perform better and improve overall health. Therefore, when I analyze an athlete’s diet, I’m looking for more than just how much protein, carbohydrate and calories they are eating. I am also comparing their diet to their training program and health. And the more they can tell me, the more I can help.

While many athletes focus on what is seemingly obvious (weight, muscle strength, speed, recovery), they often forget a part of their body that is so incredibly crucial to success – their eyesight. Yet, as I listened to Diane Alexander, PhD speak at the ISSN’s annual meeting last month, it became even more clear to me just how important specific nutrients are for eye health.

Dr. Alexander’s presentation Increased Lutein and Zeaxanthin Intake Correlates with Improved Visual Performance, was jam-packed with information about keeping your eyes health and ready to perform.  Here are some of the summary points:

  • The recommended nutrients for eye health are: zinc, copper, DHA or EPA, and the antioxidants vitamin C, vitamin E, lutein and zeaxanthin (both are carotenoids).
  • Lutein and zeaxanthin are the 2 main antioxidants found in the macula of your eye. The macula absorbs/filters blue light (hazardous rays).
  • Lutein acts like an “internal pair of sunglasses” neutralizing free radicals and reducing exposure to damaging blue light. It seems to reduce one’s risk of age-related macular degeneration and cataracts (it seems like everyone I know over age 60 has had cataract surgery).
  • Lutein and zeaxanthin may improve outdoor vision by absorbing blue light allowing a person to better distinguish between distant targets while decreasing blur (golfers, are you paying attention here?)
  • Lutein and zeaxanthin may also improve photosensitivity (the need to squint when you walk from inside to outside on a bright sunny day). Two studies conducted in healthy people found that 10 mg/day of FloraGlo® brand lutein + 2 mg/day of OPTISHARP® zeaxanthin reduced glare and improved tolerance to light.

How can you find lutein and zeaxanthin in food? First, start by eating the recommended 9-13 servings of fruits and vegetables every day (equivalent to roughly 4-8 mg of lutein/day). And, include leafy green vegetables, corn, eggs (its in the yolk) – the best sources of lutein.

As an athlete you must keep your entire body healthy. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables (and eggs) can help your eyes. If you get enough lutein and zeaxanthin, you should notice less glare, sharper vision and better distinction between objects in dim light. Though these “internal sunglasses” can help, don’t forget external ones.

Good Vision with Nutrition

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When talking about nutrition, most of my clients are so focused on calories, carbs, protein, and cutting edge supplements that will make them huge, that they don’t realize the myriad other ways that nutrition can affect their game. Yet there are research and product developments that continually make me realize just how amazing food can be and how what you eat or don’t eat affects your game and career longevity.

One of the most recent supplement developments is Bausch + Lomb’s PreserVision Eye Vitamin and Mineral supplement. Though this product is geared towards people with Age-Related Eye Diseases, there are two important things going on here. 1) everyone will age and our eyes will change in the process and, 2) you can get the ingredients in this supplement, which are important for eye health, in food. In fact, I think athletes absolutely should get critical eye nutrients such as beta carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin and omega 3 fats in their food and do so daily.

Here’s where you’ll find these nutrients for your vision:

beta carotene – egg yolks, sweet potatoes, carrots, kale, spinach, turnip greens, cantaloupe, romaine lettuce, broccoli, winter squash, collard greens.

lutein & zeaxanthin – Brussel sprouts, kale, spinach, egg yolks, collard greens, turnip greens, romaine lettuce, broccoli, zucchini.

omega 3 – wild salmon (less mercury), halibut, herring and mackerel (worried about mercury? click here for a chart on which fish contains the most mercury).

green tea – tea catechins penetrate eye tissue and according to a study in rats, reduce harmful oxidative stress in the eye.

For those people with Age Related Eye Disease, this supplement makes life easy because it delivers a guaranteed amount of these all important eye nutrients to you, daily. For the rest of us who are young and relying on good vision to hit a 90 MPH fastball or see what direction the other team is going in on the court or field, eating a diet filled with those all important nutrients for eye health may help you play better in the short term and prevent macular degeneration and cataracts in the long term.