Sourdough – Safe for Gluten Sensitivity?

Tweet about this on TwitterPin on PinterestShare on LinkedInShare on Google+Share on FacebookBuffer this pageDigg thisEmail this to someoneFlattr the authorShare on StumbleUponShare on Reddit

There’s something special about sourdough bread. Made through a slow process that begins with simple ingredients, warm water and flour, yeast and bacteria feast on the flour’s carbohydrate, producing carbon dioxide gas and bubbles that expand the dough. Each batch may tastes a little different depending on the flour and water used as well as the environment the starter is made in. My favorite sourdough bread, the kind that is made over the course of several days, has an alluring pungent, slightly sour taste. This long fermentation process leads to more complex flavors while also creating bread that is easier for those with gluten sensitivity to digest. I shared the science behind sourdough in this segment on Fox TV:

What is Gluten?

Gluten’s stretchy fibers give dough it’s rubberband-like elasticity allowing it to stretch when pizza dough is tossed in the air like a frisbee. Gluten-rich dough traps air and water during the baking process so bread rises with delicate ease, producing light and fluffy baked goods. Without wheat (and therefore gluten, which is produced when wheat flour is mixed with water), gluten free items require a blend of flours, starches and additives yet they still can’t replicate the texture of gluten-containing baked goods.

In people with celiac disease, an autoimmune digestive disease, repeated exposure to gluten damages villi, fingerlike projections in the small intestine that help us absorb nutrients from food. Over time, a decrease in nutrient absorption can lead to anemia, osteoporosis, miscarriages and other complications. The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center website lists over 300 symptoms associated with celiac disease though anemia is the most common symptom in adults. The only available treatment is a strict gluten free diet – which helps reverse intestinal damage over time. Gluten sensitivity is not an autoimmune disease but instead a vague medical condition without a uniform definition or diagnostic test at this time. People with gluten sensitivity report various symptoms triggered by the ingestion of gluten-containing foods including abdominal pain, bloating, and constipation or diarrhea. Though gluten sensitivity is real, someone who thinks they have sensitivity may actually be reacting to something other than gluten (another protein or the starches – see below under Is it the Gluten?)

Sourdough bread

The Science behind Sourdough

Standard yeast leads to a fast fermentation process. This ramps up production speed and it is also foolproof so companies can produce batches of bread at warp speed. Sourdough bread is made slowly, over time, letting the yeast work it’s magic to deliver an array of flavors as well as bread that is easier to digest. In one study, sourdough bread made with selected sourdough lactobacilli and long-time fermentation resulted in bread with gluten levels of 12 parts per million (ppm), which qualifies for gluten-free (anything below to 20 ppm is gluten free). A long fermentation process allows bacteria and yeast adequate time to feed on proteins and starches breaking them down into more digestible parts. Yet sourdough also boasts a lower glycemic index than many other types of bread (including white bread) and therefore it doesn’t lead to a quick spike in blood sugar levels.

In 2011, a small study conducted in Italy tried giving volunteers with celiac disease a small amount of specially prepared sourdough bread. The bread was fermented until the gluten was broken down to more easily digestible parts. The subjects in the study reacted well to the sourdough, with no changes in intestinal villi and no detectable antibodies typically found when a celiac disease patient eats a gluten containing food. According to the study authors, the bread “was not toxic to patients with celiac disease.”

In another study, conducted over 60 days, baked goods made from hydrolyzed wheat flour, manufactured with sourdough lactobacilli and fungal proteases, was not toxic to patients with celiac disease. Though these studies are groundbreaking, it is far too soon for celiac disease patients to try this at home. For sourdough bread to be an option for those with celiac disease, a uniform production process would need to be established to ensure the end product is gluten-free.

For those with Gluten Sensitivity, Is it Really the Gluten?

Some people may experience bloating and flatulence in response to FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols). FODMAPs are a type of carbohydrates that are not well absorbed in the small intestine and are present in bread along with a number of other foods (other grains, some vegetables and fruits). In some people the problem may be FODMAPs, not gluten. The long fermentation process reduces FODMAPs.

How to Make Sourdough at Home

Sourdough starter begins with flour and water that sits for several days while being fed intermittently with both flour and water allowing bacteria (lactobacilli) and yeast to grow and multiply creating live cultures. These microorganisms are what makes the dough ferment similar to the way milk ferments to become yogurt. Check out these recipes to make your own sourdough bread: Healthy Aperture, the Perfect Loaf.

If you run into problems making sourdough check out this page for troubleshooting.

 

 

Best Gluten Free Foods from Expo East 2014

Tweet about this on TwitterPin on PinterestShare on LinkedInShare on Google+Share on FacebookBuffer this pageDigg thisEmail this to someoneFlattr the authorShare on StumbleUponShare on Reddit

Fueled by the rise in celiac disease (which affects an estimated 1 in 133 people), non-celiac gluten sensitivity (which might actually be due to FODMAPs) and media attention surrounding gluten, the gluten free market is growing faster than other segments within the food industry. If you are gung-ho on gluten free, here are my favorite finds (based on taste and nutrition – except for the desserts of course) from Natural Products Expo East. If you aren’t sure if you should be gluten free, read this post.

Pastas & Wraps

High protein pastas? There are plenty on the market now though some are easier to find than others. All of the ones below aren’t just gluten free but also made with beans, peas or lentils making them high in fiber as well.

I fell in love with Explore Asian bean pastas a few years ago at Expo East. And I’m thrilled this pasta is now on store shelves (click here for a store locator). I sampled the edamame bean pasta tossed with Kirkland brand pesto sauce (talk about an easy meal) at their booth this year and it was delicious! Check out their website for a store locator – I’ve seen it at Costco and a few other stores near me.

High protein pastas made from beans.
High protein pastas made from beans.

Banza chickpea pasta is brand new and only available online right now. And though I didn’t get to try it (they didn’t have samples out), I’m intrigued by it’s higher fiber (which means lower “net carbs” for those who look for this) and higher protein content.

Banza Chickpea Pasta
Banza Chickpea Pasta

Tolerant Foods makes a gluten free, non GMO, organic legume pasta.  Each serving of their Red Lentil or Black Bean pasta has 21 – 23 grams of protein and 13 – 15 grams of fiber.

Tolerant Black Bean and Red Lentil Pastas
Tolerant Black Bean and Red Lentil Pastas

In addition to pastas, Paleo followers who miss their wraps will love this new coconut wrap. Gluten free, Paleo diet friendly and if you love coconut you’ll really like The Pure Wraps.

Pure Wraps - Coconut Wraps
Pure Wraps – Coconut Wraps

Breakfast

My favorite cereal from the show is Attune Foods Ewehorn Buckwheat and Hemp.Buckwheat is actually a vegetable and this cereal is not only very tasty (especially if you like the taste of hearty whole grains) but also very filling thanks to its high fiber content. Buckwheat is actually a vegetable and this cereal is not only very tasty (especially if you like the taste of hearty whole grains) but also very filling thanks to its high fiber content.

Also try The Toasted Oat Granola. I almost walked right by this booth in the new products section (because there are so many granolas on the market) but this one is different – it’s chewy. I absolutely love this because it stands out among different granolas on the market today and provides an option for adults who have had problems with their teeth and have been told to avoid hard foods like granola and nuts.

The Toasted Oat chewy granola
The Toasted Oat chewy granola

Another great breakfast option – FlapJacked. Sure you could make your own high protein pancakes but, if you don’t have time, check out FlapJacked. Just add water, mix, pour into a pan sprayed with non-stick spray or lightly coated with oil and flip once the sides start to cook (this is important! Flip them too soon and they will be very flat).

Dessert 

If you are a chip lover, check out Simply 7 Snacks Quinoa chips. High in protein and fiber and their sour cream and dill is better than any similar flavored potato chip on the market today.

I fell in love with roasted chickpeas last winter. I love crunch and salt and these are the perfect substitution for potato chips (seriously, they taste great when you add spices – I make them by brushing them with olive oil and sprinkling garlic salt on top). However, if you don’t want to good, Saffron Road has flavored chickpeas that will make your taste buds dance with delight.

On the sweet side, Nothin’ But Granola – I can’t even describe how good this is. I walked by and grabbed a bite, stopped in my tracks and went back for more. It comes in soft bars or bites.

I’m a fan of both Immaculate Baking Company and Betty Crocker’s gluten free mixes but, XO Baking Company is on an entirely different level. Those are the best boxed mix gluten free cookies I have ever tried. In fact, they were so good they beat out any non-gluten free mixes I’ve tried too. The founder of XO Baking Company, Lindsey Deitsch, has a neat story as well. She’s been baking ever since she was a child and once diagnosed with celiac disease she set out to make better tasting baked goods. Lindsey has a degree in Public Health and is a chef as well. All gluten free bakeries and restaurants need to buy these in bulk – your customers will thank you.

XO Baking Company - gluten free & amazing taste!
XO Baking Company – gluten free & amazing taste!

Pros and Cons of Grain Brain, Wheat Belly and the Paleo Diet

Tweet about this on TwitterPin on PinterestShare on LinkedInShare on Google+Share on FacebookBuffer this pageDigg thisEmail this to someoneFlattr the authorShare on StumbleUponShare on Reddit

Diet books are tempting. They tell you the reason you’re overweight, what foods are “toxic” and how to get rid of them while strolling down the yellow brick road to lasting weight loss and good health. But there’s one main issue – many of these books aren’t based on scientific evidence but instead theories that are pulled out of thin air. “But my neighbor lost 50 lbs. following Paleo!” Well your neighbor cut out potato chips, beer and fried food in the process so of course he lost weight. The Paleo diet just gave him a convincing (even if scientifically inaccurate) reason to cut these foods out.

All of these diets have some pros and cons which I expand upon in this TV segment I did for Fox 5 and below the video:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KQyfQ5hf_Qc&feature=youtu.be

Gluten is a protein formed from other proteins (gliadins and glutenins; any single wheat plant may produce > 100 gliadins and > 50 glutenins) naturally found in wheat foods when wheat flour is mixed with water (the mechanical action of mixing plus the water are necessary). Other proteins that are similar to gluten are found in barley (hordiens) and rye (secalins). Gluten gives dough it’s tough elastic structure and contributes to the light and fluffy texture of baked goods. If it sounds complex, it is but here are the important points:

  • Wheat today doesn’t have more gluten (or create more gluten when mixed with water) than varieties from 70 years ago unless the manufacturer adds vital wheat gluten back to the food itself (J Plant Reg 2012;6(1)).
  • Wheat breeding is complex and focuses on creating varieties of wheat that meet what food makers and consumers are looking for – a flaky pie crust or nice soft wheat bread for instance.
  • Gluten isn’t an easy to digest protein (there are many foods we eat that are not completely broken down) but, this isn’t a problem for most people – only those with celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (which might not be due to gluten alone but instead FODMAPs).

Paleo: What You Need to Know

The Paleo diet is based on one main principle: if we eat like our hunter-gatherer ancestors who lived between 2.6 million to 10,000 years ago, before the start of the agricultural revolution, we will avoid modern diseases such as heart disease as well as infections.

This diet is based on grass-produced meats, fish/seafood, fresh fruits and vegetables, eggs, nuts and seeds and “healthful” oils. Everything else is off limits.

Paleo’s Glaring Oversights:

  • there was no one single Paleo diet – diets varied based on region and time period (check out Christina Warinner’s TED talk on this)
  • In several regions, well over 10,000 years ago and possibly even a few million years ago, people ate grains and legumes.
  • Examination of mummies tells us that all people from this time period had clogged arteries.
  • The fruits, vegetables and meats we have today look nothing like what our ancestors ate (ex: fruit were small, tough and bitter).
  • Our ancestors hunted and gathered food – in other words, their daily lives included physical activity (both strength training which builds muscle and bone and aerobic exercise).

Paleo – What’s Good:

  • The Paleo diet cuts out our top sources of calories in the US including alcohol, desserts and sugar sweetened beverages.
  • It’s loaded with protein which will keep you full for a longer period of time after eating and help you build muscle.
  • Plenty of fruits and vegetables!

Paleo – What’s Bad:

  • No legumes (peas, beans, lentils and peanuts) – legumes are rich in fiber, potassium, magnesium (some), iron (some), antioxidants and more.
  • No grains. Grains provide a good bit of the fiber in the average American diet in addition to folate, other vitamins and antioxidants.
  • No dairy – our top source of bone building calcium and vitamin D. Now, I know what some self proclaimed nutrition experts will say here – people in Africa (or insert other country here) don’t consume much calcium and they don’t have as many cases of osteoporosis as we do in the U.S. Go to Africa, conduct dietary recalls (to see what they are indeed eating) and then follow a group of women around for several days. The women I met from Africa a few years ago were big and strong thanks to farm work (in their particular country the women do all the farming). They walked (far) with buckets of water on their head daily (fantastic way to build bone density in the spine!). I don’t know any females in the U.S. who get near the bone building activity these women are getting on a daily basis. So, this is far from a valid comparison. (SN: I haven’t even bothered to research the incidence of osteoporosis here vs. Africa because I’d be comparing a largely sedentary desk-sitting population to one with different genetics that also gets bone building activity for hours each day).

Diet magic? Follow anything that makes you cut calories and you’ll lose weight. Eat more protein and you’ll tend to lose more fat than muscle.