The Truth about Cage-free, Free-range, No Antibiotics, Humanely Raised

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Nutrition claims are confusing. How do you know if you should pay more for a carton of eggs or package of meat based on a claim on the package? Is it legit, or made up by a marketing team to make their food stand out from competitive products on grocery store shelves? This post will help you sort through the confusion on common food claims including cage-free, free-range, antibiotic-free and differences in egg quality scores so you can choose which option is best for you.


free-range, cage-free eggs

Eggs: Cage-Free, Free-Range & AA, A and B Quality

Cage-free (eggs) – “cage-free” refers to the environment the hens (hens lay eggs) live in. Cage-free hens are housed in an environment allowing unlimited access to food, water and freedom to roam. There is no known nutrition difference in eggs produced by hens that are cage-free versus those that are not cage-free1.

AA quality eggs – the shells must be “clean, unbroken and practically normal.” Also, the white must be clear and reasonably firm, with a clear distinction between white and yolk. The yolk must be free from apparent defects. The air cell—the part of the egg that separates the inner shell membrane from the outer shell membrane—for AA quality eggs must not exceed 1/8 inch2.

A quality eggs – the only difference between AA and A quality eggs is the air cell. The air cell for A quality eggs must not exceed 3/16 of an inch2.

B quality eggs – the shells must be unbroken, but may be abnormal or have slightly stained areas. Shells with prominent stains or dirt are not permitted. The egg white can be weak and watery, while the yoke may be dark and large and flattened. Small blood or meat spots may be present2.

Meat and Dairy Claims

Pasture-raised, free-range, free-roaming – the animals have continuous, unrestricted access to pasture (land covered with grass and other plants) throughout their lives. Cattle and sheep must not be confined to a feedlot. Pigs must have continuous access to pasture for at least 80% of their life. You might see “free-range – never confined to feedlot,” on your meat3.

Antibiotic-free or No Antibiotics – all meat, milk and other dairy products are free from antibiotics. Therefore, a package of meat that says “antibiotic-free” is no different from the one next to it that does not carry this claim. When an animal is on antibiotics, their milk is not sold, and they cannot be slaughtered for meat. Instead, the farmer must wait until all traces of medication have cleared the animal’s body before the cow can be milked or the animal can be sent for slaughter. For more on this topic as related to milk, click here.

Humanely raised – this term makes me think of a farmer who knows each animal by name; pets and cares for them daily while attending to their needs. However, this isn’t the case. “Humanely raised” is a term made up by food companies. There is no formal definition and therefore, it is up to the food company to decide what they consider humanely raised. Ignore it. 

Naturally raised – there is no official definition for naturally raised. Therefore, this claim could mean anything. Ignore it.

Grass-fed – there is no universally accepted, standardized definition for the term grass-fed. All cows, sheep and goats eat grass for most of their lives. However, some of these animals are grain-finished—they spend several months on a grain-based diet until they reach their ideal weight. At this time, their diet consists of grains, grass, vitamin and mineral mixes, citrus pulp and other feed as determined by an animal nutritionist based on their dietary needs. Other animals are grass-finished, they consume grass their entire life, and may be given vitamin and mineral mixes as needed. There are no nutrition differences between grain-finished and grass-finished meat.

Food is a very competitive business. Consumers may choose a product based on a variety of factors including great packaging, superior taste and good nutrition value. Food claims may sway your decision; however, be sure you’re getting what you are paying for. Look for claims that are backed by a standardized definition, versus those with no definition.

This post was sponsored by USFRA, all views are my own.

References

  1. Questions and Answers About Shell Eggs. USDA Agricultural Marketing Service.
  1. United States Standards, Grades and Weight Classes for Shell Eggs AMS 56. USDA.
  1. Federal Register. Vol. 67, No. 250. United States Standards for Livestock and Meat Marketing Claims. 67 FR 79552. Federal Department of Agriculture.

Grass Fed Lies: The Truth about Organic Milk & Grass Fed Beef

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Grass fed meat

If you’ve been sucking up the extra cost of organic dairy products and grass fed beef, comforted by the fact that you’re doing what’s good for your body, I have some news for you: you’ve gained little more than peace of mind grounded in a marketing scam. There is no meaningful nutrition difference in organic milk, grass fed beef and their conventional (non organic / grass fed) counterparts.

The Truth about Organic Dairy

Organic milk is packed with omega-3 fatty acids, iron and vitamin D, according to an article published Feb. 16 in the British Journal of Nutrition. This meta-analysis examined the results from 170 published studies comparing the nutrient content of organic milk with conventional milk. They suggest organic milk wins by a landslide: it’s nutritionally superior to its conventional counterparts. Though there were no significant differences in saturated fat and monounsaturated fat in organic vs. conventional milk, organic milk has 56% more beneficial omega-3 fatty acids, 41% more conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), significantly more vitamin E and iron than conventional milk. Statistically speaking, they are scientifically correct. Nutritionally speaking, these differences are meaningless.

Organic milk contains 56% more omega-3 fats than regular (conventional) milk (56% more based on the total fat content). However, statistically more than a little bit is still a little bit. Milk is not considered a major source of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet, regardless of milk type. In fact, according to one study, 1 cup of organic whole milk has about 8.2 mg of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 11 mg of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) compared to 6.2 mg of EPA and 9.1 mg of DHA. That’s a far cry from the 250 – 500 mg of EPA + DHA we should get, on average, each day. Fatty fish are the best way to get EPA and DHA.

milk jug
Organic Milk:
19 mg EPA + DHA

Conventional Milk:
15 mg EPA + DHA

 

 

 

Salmon

Herring, Wild
Salmon, Farmed (Atlantic)
Salmon, Wild (King)
Mackerel, Wild

1,200 mg EPA + DHA

 

 

  • EPA and DHA are heart smart – they lower blood fats (triglycerides) and blood pressure. Plus they’re good for your brain and eyes.

What about CLA? CLA is group of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in meat and milk. There are many proposed benefits associated with CLA including changes in body fat with ultra high supplemental doses of CLA. However, the difference in CLA content is also biologically meaningless – 56 mg in a glass of organic whole milk and 47 mg in a class of conventional whole milk.

The British Journal of Nutrition research also showed slightly higher beta carotene and vitamin E in organic milk. These very small differences may be due to a host of reasons including seasonal variation and breed. Milk is not a major source of these nutrients, so this has no biological impact on human health. If you want iron, eat more red meat, fish and poultry or plant-based sources including beans, lentils and peas (eat these with a vitamin C rich food to increase the absorption of plant-based iron). For vitamin E your best bets are oils, nuts and seeds.

  • Key point: statistical significance ≠ biological relevance.

What about antibiotics and hormones in dairy? I covered that in another blog post. You can read more about it here.

Is Grass Fed Beef Better?

If you’re one of many Americans paying a premium for grass fed beef because it contains more omega-3s and less saturated fat than it’s unassuming conventional counterparts, it may be time to reconsider where you’re spending your grocery money.

The omega-3s in grass fed beef are different than the kind in fatty fish. Fatty fish and algae contain EPA and DHA. There’s a third omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), found in plants including walnuts, soybeans, pumpkin seeds, flaxseeds and chia seeds. Grass fed beef contains ALA because flaxseeds are added to their feed. While EPA and DHA lower blood fats (triglycerides) and are tied to heart benefits, ALA does not lower blood fats and is not associated with the same heart health benefits. ALA rich foods also contain a variety of other bioactive compounds that may act independently or synergistically to improve cardiovascular disease risk factors (eat the whole food not just ALA). The human body can convert ALA to EPA and DHA but this conversion process is inefficient. Less than 4% of ALA is converted to EPA and less than 1% makes its way to DHA. ALA ≠EPA + DHA. A 5-ounce serving of grass fed beef contains a whopping 20 to 30 mg of ALA (slight variations in brands of grass fed beef based on the cow’s diet). The Adequate Intake for ALA is 1,600 and 1,100 grams per day for adult men and women, respectively. Eat grass fed beef and you’ll get 2 – 3% of the AI for ALA for men and 1-2% for women.

Grass fed beef and conventional beef have the same amount of saturated fat with some differences in the types of saturated fatty acids. The difference in CLA content of grass fed and conventional beef is tiny. According to a review from Dave et al. (Nutr J 2010;9:10), it ranges from 0.13 – 2.65 (grams CLA/100 grams of fat in the meat) in conventional meat and 0.43 – 5.14 (grams CLA/100 grams of fat in the meat) in grass fed beef depending on the cow and feed. So, you could be getting less total CLA in certain cuts of grass fed beef than conventional beef. 

What about the Bacteria in Conventional Beef?
You cook your beef right? Bacteria is killed during cooking. Moot point.

Is Grass Fed More Sustainable? What about Hormones and Antibiotics?
I will address this and other issues in the next post. Stay tuned….

Organic dairy products and grass fed beef come in beautiful, higher end packaging with natural hues of green and brown outlining their superiority to modest looking products that sit beside them on store shelves. If you love the taste, stick with your organic milk and grass fed beef. But don’t buy into the marketing hype.

References

Circulation 2011;123(20):2292-333.
British Journal of Nutrition 2016;115:1043–1060.
PLoS One 2013; 8(12): e82429.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001;74:612–9.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999;69:890–7.
British Medical Journal 1996;313:84–90.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;89(5):1649S-56S.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;83(6):S1526-1535.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12): e82429.
Nutrition Journal 2010, 9:10.

 

 

 

 

Expo East Food Trend Spotter: Natural Jerky

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Jerky was hot this past weekend at Natural Products Expo East (the leading trade show on the East Coast in the natural, organic and healthy products industry). And I was thrilled to see so many varieties since my clients are often looking for shelf stable, portable, higher protein, healthy, TSA-approved (you can travel with it) snacks. If you are looking for a healthier version of jerky, check out these finds from the Expo:

KRAVE is a small-batch producer of all-natural, gluten free, artisanal jerky marinated and baked to lock in moisture. KRAVE’s well-seasoned meat is braised first, utilizing the “low & slow” method to result in its signature moist and tender texture. KRAVE’s wide selection of innovative flavors includes basil citrus and lemon garlic (turkey); chili lime, chipotle, garlic chili pepper and pineapple orange (beef); grilled sweet teriyaki and black cherry barbecue (pork). Check out their Store Locator to find out which grocery stores near you carry KRAVE.

Lemon Garlic Krave Turkey Jerky
Lemon Garlic Krave Turkey Jerky

The New Primal greeted me at their fantastic booth like they did with every customer – showing their appreciation that you stopped by to check out their jerky (in the new products section at Expo East). Their jerky comes from grass-fed beef, marinated and smoked to perfection. The founder, Jason, started in his own backyard, fine-tuning his jerky until it was ready for store sheaves. Because The New Primal specializes in artisanal jerky that contains no nitrates, preservatives or MSG and their original beef has just 1 gram of sugar per serving. It comes in Jerky and Spicy and perhaps best of all you can find it in a store near you. 

Original-Beef-Front-1000x1000
The New Primal Grass-Fed Beef Jerky
Original-Beef-Back-1000x1000
The New Primal Grass-Fed Beef Jerky Nutrition

Golden Valley Natural wants you to taste the Flavor of the West with their natural, gluten free, high quality beef, buffalo and turkey jerky. They come in Teriyaki, Bar-B-Que, Black Pepper, Sweet N’ Spicy and Original. Purchase online only right now.

Golden Natural Valley Buffalo Jerky
Golden Natural Valley Buffalo Jerky

Country Archer starts with extra-lean beef and adds fresh, high quality ingredients like chili peppers, pineapple juice, ginger and tamarind. No artificial ingredients or preservatives. They carry Hot, Sweet & Spicy, Peppered, Beef Teriyaki and Turkey Teriyaki. This brand is in many stores on the west coast, some in Canada and a sprinkling in the northeast (PA on up). For retailers, click here.

Country Archer Beef Jerky - Hot
Country Archer Beef Jerky – Hot

Fusion Jerky is gluten free, preservative free, contains no artificial ingredients, is and is all natural. Order these flavors online: Basil Citrus Beef, Chipotle Lime Beef, Basil Citrus Chicken, Lemon Pepper Chicken, Garlic Jalapeño Pork, Island Teriyaki Pork, Chili Basil Turkey, Rosemary Citrus Turkey. The nutrition information is listed for each flavor if you go under “shop” at the top, scroll down and click on the flavor under “Online Store” (click on the arrows at the top on the left to increase the size of the nutrition label to make it bigger).

Fusion Jerky

Triple-R-Farms features grass-fed Highland beef jerky (grass-fed means less saturated fat). Triple-R-Farms flavors include Chesapeake Bay with Coffee Beef Jerky, Chesapeake Bay Beef Jerky, Red Hot Pepper with Coffee Beef Jerky, Red Hot Pepper Beef Jerky, Beef Jerky with Coffee. They need both the nutrition information and a store locator (or some information regarding where you can find it), on their website. Props for the Chesapeake flavor!