Get Cultured: Probiotics can Help You Lose Weight & Stay Healthy

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From Greek to Icelandic Skyr, yogurt is everywhere. Choose the right kind, one packed with probiotics and protein, and yogurt can help you trim your waistline while supporting overall health at the same time.

In this article, I’m covering:
• How gut bacteria influence your weight and health
• Probiotic-rich foods for health & healthy weight

Your Gut Bacteria Influence Your Weight & Health

There is an entire community of over one trillion microbes (bacteria) taking up valuable real estate in your gut. Some are good, some are bad and the rest are neutral. The good guys are key players for digestive and immune functioning (remember about 70% of your immune system is located in your gut). They have many other functions as well:
bacteria, probiotics and body weight

Research studies show lean and obese people have a different makeup of bacteria in their gut. In addition, lean individuals have a greater diversity of bacteria in their gut. Diversity is important –  think of bacteria like a team of people each one has a different job and they work better together than in isolation.

If an obese person loses weight their overall makeup of bacteria more closely resemble’s a lean person’s gut. Greater weight loss = even greater the changes in gut bacteria. Also, changing bacteria seems to influence weight, though scientists know less about the influence of altering gut bacteria and changing body weight. Lean mice transplanted with bacteria from obese mice experienced a 60% increase in body fat without changing their food intake (calories in) or physical activity (calories out). The authors of this study believe the change in gut bacteria resulted in an increased absorption of some carbohydrates, increase in the production of fat and increase in fat storage. Authors from another study, this one examining human twins, also found a connection between types of bacteria in the gut and body weight, particularly visceral fat – deep layers of fat that coat the organs and are tied to higher risk of certain chronic diseases such as heart disease. The authors of this study believe, like the study in mice, obese individuals may be absorbing more calories from the food they eat.

Probiotic-Rich Foods for Health & Healthy Weight

How did they swap out bacteria in studies? Poop transplants. This isn’t exactly something you should try at home. But there’s another, easier way to keep your gut healthy. Get cultured by picking up foods that contain healthy bacteria including yogurt (with live and active cultures), kefir (drinkable yogurt, it’s so good!), miso soup, homemade sauerkraut, and tempeh (made from soy, this has a nutty taste). There might be something special about yogurt – a meta-analysis (a study that combined the results of other studies) looked at dairy intake and weight changes over time. They found greater yogurt intake was associated with lower body weight. Plus the protein in Greek yogurt seems to help people feel full so they eat less at their next meal. Also, feed the bacteria by eating plenty of fruits, vegetables and whole grains, particularly onions, greens, beans, legumes, berries and bananas, to get enough prebiotics (food) to support their growth.

 

References
Benno Y. Mitsuoka T. Development of intestinal microflora in human and animals. Bifidobacteria Microflora 1986; 5:13-25.

Quigley EMM, Quera R. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: Roles of Antibiotics, Prebiotics, and Probiotics. Gastroenterology 2006;130:S78-S90.

O’Hara AM, Shanahan F. The gut flora as a forgotten organ. EMBO Rep 2006;7:688-93.

Ramakrishna B. The normal bacterial flora of the human intestine and its regulation. J Clin Gastroenterology 2007;41:S2-S6.

Douglas LC, Sanders ME. Probiotics and prebiotics in dietetics practice. J Am Diet Assoc 2008;108:510-521.

Million M, Maraninchi M, Henry M et al. Obesity-associated gut microbiota is enriched in Lactobacillus reuteri and depleted in Bifidobacterium animalis and Methanobrevibacter smithii. Int J Obesity 2012;36:817-825.

Hempel S, Newberry SJ, Maher AR, Wang Z et al. Probiotics for the Prevention and Treatment of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA 2012;307(18):1959-1969.

An Introduction to Probiotics. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. National Institutes of Health. http://nccam.nih.gov/health/probiotics/

Marik PE. Colonic flora, probiotics, obesity and diabetes. Front Endocrinol 2012;3:87.

Bäckhed F, Ding H, Wang T, Hooper LV, Koh GY, Nagy A, Semenkovich CF, Gordon JI. The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:15718-23.

Ley RE, Turnbaugh PJ, Klein S, Gordon JI. Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature 2006;444(7122):1022-3.

Kalliomäki M, Collado MC, Salminen S, Isolauri E. Early differences in fecal microbiota composition in children may predict overweight. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87(3):534-8.

Yang YX, He M, Hu G, Wei J, Pages P, Yang XH, Bourdu-Naturel S. Effect of a fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173010 on Chinese constipated women. World J Gastroenterol 2008;14(40):6237-43.

Yaeshima T et al. Effect of yogurt containing Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on the intestinal environment, fecal characteristics and defecation frequency: a comparison with standard yogurt. Bioscience Microflora 1997;16:73-77.

Hempel S et al. Probiotics for the Prevention and Treatment of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea
A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA 2012;307;1959-1969.

Semova I, Carten JD, Stombaugh J et al. Microbiota Regulate Intestinal Absorption and Metabolism of Fatty Acids in the Zebrafish. Cell Host & Microbe 2012;12:277.

Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G, Schwedhelm C, Kalle-Uhlmann T, Missbach B, Knuppel S, Boeing H. Consumption of Dairy Products in Relation to Changes in Anthropometric Variables in Adult Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies. PLoS One 2016; 11(6): e0157461.

The Truth about Detox Diets

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Detox Diets and Cleanses

Detox diets promise to clean up the mess left behind from daily life so you feel better, more energetic and lose excess body fat. Consider them the Merry Maids for your body. They come with an army of equipment and compounds to attack years of buildup from environmental toxins, pesticides, allergens, waste, and inflammatory substances. This “sewage sludge” is stuck to your gut, interfering with digestion, leaving you bloated, tired, fat and with joints and muscles that feel like they are on fire.

In theory this sounds great. But there’s one glaring issue. The human body doesn’t need to “detox” because it comes equipped with organs designed to remove waste products. Plus, many detox diets are simply very low calorie plans with added laxatives and diuretics (because instant, yet temporary, weight loss might fool you into believing the outrageous claims on detox and cleansing products). Instead of wasting your money, take the top 3 good points about many of these diets and incorporate them into your overall nutrition plan:

Drink More Water

There are a few studies showing that individuals who are obese can lose weight by drinking 2 glasses of water before each meal. Plus, many people don’t get enough water or total fluids each day anyway and dehydration can make you feel sluggish and grouchy. So, grab it from the tap or if it’s more convenient, fill up your stainless steal water bottles and carry them with you at all times.

Eat More Fruits and Vegetables

The average American is falling short on fruit and vegetable intake. According to the National Cancer Institute, people with diets rich in plant foods, such as fruits and vegetables, have a lower risk of getting some types of cancer as well as diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure. Produce generally has fewer calories than many other foods making it a great addition to a weight loss diet.

Get Friendly with Bacteria

Many detox plans include unfiltered apple cider vinegar – the kind that has a cloudy appearance – is full of probiotics. Probiotics are friendly (beneficial) bacteria – the kind that live in your gut and have a number of important functions in your body. Improving your gut bacteria may support immune functioning, improve the health of your intestinal tract, increase your body’s absorption of certain nutrients and alleviate constipation. Apple cider vinegar is acidic so I don’t recommend drinking it straight. Instead, dilute it in a big glass of water or another beverage. Other great sources of probiotics include kefir, yogurt (check the container for “live and active cultures”), miso soup, tempeh, sauerkraut, kimchi.

Add 2 glasses of water before each meal, load up on vegetables and fruits and make an effort to consume probiotic-rich food daily and you will reap the rewards of better nutrition without wasting money on detox diets and cleanses.

References:
Parvez J et al. J Appl Microbio 2006;100(6):1171-1185.
Parretti HM et al. Obesity 2015, 23(8):1785-1791.
Dennis EA et al. Obesity 2010;18(2):300-307.

 

Lighten Up Over the Holidays: Healthier Holiday Eating

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Gisselle Marie Rosa, UGA M.S. student

With the holiday season here, many Americans are faced with a very difficult decision: should I dive into that second serving of glazed ham and mashed potatoes delicately covered with a blanket of gravy or put the rest away for later? At this time of year, family and friends often gather together around the dinner table, sharing comfort food and stories while celebrating the holidays. But, let’s face the facts, many holiday foods aren’t the healthiest options. According to a recently published study, most Americans gain 0.5 kilograms, or about 1 pound, of weight during the holiday season.Overweight and obese individuals gain more than than those who are healthy weight.

But, if it’s only 1 measly pound over the holidays, then what’s the big deal?

While it seems that gaining 1 pound isn’t a big deal, the same study showed that most individuals don’t shed that pound over the next year. So over time those measly pounds tend to add up, increasing the individual’s risk for becoming overweight or obese.

Does this mean that you can’t eat your favorite holiday dishes?

Absolutely not! This is a special time and it is OK to enjoy the foods you love. However, there are some ways that you can modify your favorite dishes to make them more nutritious but still keep the familiar flavor that you love. Here are some tips to lighten up your holiday favorites:

  1. Appetizers/Dipping Sauces
    1. Chips, creamy dips, fried cheese sticks, potato skins, buffalo chicken poppers, you name it. These tasty snacks are one of the biggest calorie-packing culprits during the holidays. If appetizers are on the menu, opt for fresh vegetables dipped in a light ranch sauce or whole wheat pita chips dipped in a low-fat yogurt dip. Plenty of flavor, fewer calories.
  2. Mashed Potatoes
    1. This creamy dish is the quintessential holiday companion to any entrée, but many people make mashed potatoes with cheese, heavy cream, and plenty of butter. Try substituting the heavy cream for skim milk and chicken broth or roasted garlic for extra flavor while keeping the creamy texture of the potatoes.
  3. Latkes
    1. Potato Latkes are an essential part of every Hanukkah celebration, but these fried pillows of potatoes can really add a lot of fat to the holiday meal. Try mixing white and sweet potatoes to add extra vitamins and minerals to your dish. Also, make sure to use healthy oils such as olive oil to sauté the latkes instead of butter!
  4. Vegetable Casseroles
    1. While delicious, these creamy concoctions are typically filled with extra cheese, creamy condensed soups, and overcooked vegetables. Upgrade your favorite vegetable casseroles by substituting canned vegetables with frozen vegetables to decrease the sodium. Additionally, substituting some of the fried onions with slivered almonds keeps the familiar crunch while switching to low-fat cheese cuts out some of the fat and calories (or use less of a more flavorful cheese).
  5. Baked Goods
    1. Dessert during the holidays is definitely a must! A great way to cut the fat and the calories from your favorite baked goods is by substituting the oil with applesauce. Applesauce adds lots of moisture and becomes almost flavorless, making it a versatile ingredient.

Making healthy choices during the holidays may seem like a sacrifice, but it does not have to be! Done right, you can enjoy your favorite holiday comfort foods without packing on the calories or the pounds.

References

Schoeller DA. The effect of holiday weight gain on body weight. Physiology and Behavior 2014;134:66-69.

Squash Food Cues & Lose Weight

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Losing weight and keeping it off for good has a lot more to do with your head then your stomach. Your brain sends out satiety cues and it also stops you from grabbing a second piece of cake when you are already stuffed. Paying attention to what the unemotional, rational part of your brain is telling you will help you win the war on weight and kick diets to the curb for good. How can you start this process of mindful eating? First, become very aware of food cues that can cause you to eat & drink more than you physically need to consume. Some of these include:

  • Number of people at your table – as the # of people you dine with increases, so does your calorie intake. Now, I’m not suggesting you dine alone but, just be more aware of this in social settings so you don’t overeat. If you are a female, throw a hot man in the mix since women tend to eat less in the company of men. Or, better yet, throw several hot men in the mix. Your girl friends and your waistline will thank you for it!
  • Marriage. We tend to take on the habits of those around us and, typically, men eat more than women so when women get hitched, they take on the eating patterns of their spouse. Could it be that the chase is over too? I have no idea. But, women, take notice of your plate -it should not contain the same amount of food as your spouse’s plate.
  • Overweight, obese or diet-obsessed friends. If you dine with people who are overweight, you tend to eat more. Not to mention, many of these people want you to eat more so they feel better about what they are consuming. Likewise, I’ve noticed a strange phenomena among women obsessed with their weight or certain aspects of their body – they don’t feel okay eating cake, French fries or other foods they deem “bad” unless you eat it with them. If you have overweight or obese friends, by all means, dine with them. Just be aware of your behavior and find some friends who also encourage you to hit the gym, go running etc.

  • The TV + your comfy couch. Surely you’ve heard this a million times – more TV often = more weight. How do you combat that yet still view your favorite programs? Put a bike, treadmill or elliptical machine in front of the TV. And add some yoga to your workout mix – yoga = greater mindfulness overall.
  • Big plates, bowls, cups etc. – the bigger the dish you are eating out of, the more you’ll pack in there and subsequently, eat.
  • Refills – get individual servings of beer, soda, juice, etc. (vs. pitchers) and don’t let the waitstaff refill that bowl of chips). When we can’t see what we’ve eaten, and our plate, bowl or cup is constantly refilled, we eat more.

It pays to be more aware of what you are doing so you can change your behavior. Because, there are tons of visual cues (like the smell of a Cinnabon when I am dashing through the airport) around us that encourage us to eat. If you can tame some of these cues, you’ll be better off in the long run.  Last, but not least, don’t underestimate the effect of diet counseling (i.e. seeing a dietitian regularly) for weight loss.

Overweight or Obese? Your Transformation Guide is Here!

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As a nation, we’ve never had more tools to help us lose weight. But, we also have food, and tons of it, at our fingertips.  Food is everywhere and in some places, parks and trails are scarce. So, what’s an overweight girl or guy to do? Follow this step-by-step plan:

  1. Write down your exact goals and why you want to achieve them. What is driving you down the path to losing weight?
  2. Find out what works for you and check in frequently. I recommend working one-on-one with a dietitian who can take your medical history, medications you are consuming and dieting history into account to create a personalized plan while working around any barriers you may have (money, time, family duties, stress, motivation).
  3. Opt for a little more protein and consume protein evenly distributed throughout the day (but, don’t cut carbs out completely or you may find yourself dreaming of bread and fruit).
  4. Face your weight gain head on – take a look at your weight history over time and find out what caused your weight gain and deal directly with that issue.
  5. Believe you can change (this is a HUGE part of your success) and be sure to surround yourself with people who believe you can change.
  6. Realize it “Isn’t about the Hershey kisses,” as Memphis-based eating disorder expert and dietitian Leslie Schilling says. Binge eating, eating in secret (kitchen sink-side eating) and overeating have nothing to do with food and therefore, it is important to find out exactly why you are eating. What emotion or feeling is causing you to turn to food?
  7. Get rid of your Food Shame and Good Food, Bad Food mentality. If you feel shamed, you’ll eat in secret.
  8. Write down every BLT (bites, licks and tastes). You bite it, you write it.
  9. Reward yourself with non-food rewards.
  10. Exercise. Find whatever works for you that you like and will continue doing!