Sourdough – Safe for Gluten Sensitivity?

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There’s something special about sourdough bread. Made through a slow process that begins with simple ingredients, warm water and flour, yeast and bacteria feast on the flour’s carbohydrate, producing carbon dioxide gas and bubbles that expand the dough. Each batch may tastes a little different depending on the flour and water used as well as the environment the starter is made in. My favorite sourdough bread, the kind that is made over the course of several days, has an alluring pungent, slightly sour taste. This long fermentation process leads to more complex flavors while also creating bread that is easier for those with gluten sensitivity to digest. I shared the science behind sourdough in this segment on Fox TV:

What is Gluten?

Gluten’s stretchy fibers give dough it’s rubberband-like elasticity allowing it to stretch when pizza dough is tossed in the air like a frisbee. Gluten-rich dough traps air and water during the baking process so bread rises with delicate ease, producing light and fluffy baked goods. Without wheat (and therefore gluten, which is produced when wheat flour is mixed with water), gluten free items require a blend of flours, starches and additives yet they still can’t replicate the texture of gluten-containing baked goods.

In people with celiac disease, an autoimmune digestive disease, repeated exposure to gluten damages villi, fingerlike projections in the small intestine that help us absorb nutrients from food. Over time, a decrease in nutrient absorption can lead to anemia, osteoporosis, miscarriages and other complications. The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center website lists over 300 symptoms associated with celiac disease though anemia is the most common symptom in adults. The only available treatment is a strict gluten free diet – which helps reverse intestinal damage over time. Gluten sensitivity is not an autoimmune disease but instead a vague medical condition without a uniform definition or diagnostic test at this time. People with gluten sensitivity report various symptoms triggered by the ingestion of gluten-containing foods including abdominal pain, bloating, and constipation or diarrhea. Though gluten sensitivity is real, someone who thinks they have sensitivity may actually be reacting to something other than gluten (another protein or the starches – see below under Is it the Gluten?)

Sourdough bread

The Science behind Sourdough

Standard yeast leads to a fast fermentation process. This ramps up production speed and it is also foolproof so companies can produce batches of bread at warp speed. Sourdough bread is made slowly, over time, letting the yeast work it’s magic to deliver an array of flavors as well as bread that is easier to digest. In one study, sourdough bread made with selected sourdough lactobacilli and long-time fermentation resulted in bread with gluten levels of 12 parts per million (ppm), which qualifies for gluten-free (anything below to 20 ppm is gluten free). A long fermentation process allows bacteria and yeast adequate time to feed on proteins and starches breaking them down into more digestible parts. Yet sourdough also boasts a lower glycemic index than many other types of bread (including white bread) and therefore it doesn’t lead to a quick spike in blood sugar levels.

In 2011, a small study conducted in Italy tried giving volunteers with celiac disease a small amount of specially prepared sourdough bread. The bread was fermented until the gluten was broken down to more easily digestible parts. The subjects in the study reacted well to the sourdough, with no changes in intestinal villi and no detectable antibodies typically found when a celiac disease patient eats a gluten containing food. According to the study authors, the bread “was not toxic to patients with celiac disease.”

In another study, conducted over 60 days, baked goods made from hydrolyzed wheat flour, manufactured with sourdough lactobacilli and fungal proteases, was not toxic to patients with celiac disease. Though these studies are groundbreaking, it is far too soon for celiac disease patients to try this at home. For sourdough bread to be an option for those with celiac disease, a uniform production process would need to be established to ensure the end product is gluten-free.

For those with Gluten Sensitivity, Is it Really the Gluten?

Some people may experience bloating and flatulence in response to FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols). FODMAPs are a type of carbohydrates that are not well absorbed in the small intestine and are present in bread along with a number of other foods (other grains, some vegetables and fruits). In some people the problem may be FODMAPs, not gluten. The long fermentation process reduces FODMAPs.

How to Make Sourdough at Home

Sourdough starter begins with flour and water that sits for several days while being fed intermittently with both flour and water allowing bacteria (lactobacilli) and yeast to grow and multiply creating live cultures. These microorganisms are what makes the dough ferment similar to the way milk ferments to become yogurt. Check out these recipes to make your own sourdough bread: Healthy Aperture, the Perfect Loaf.

If you run into problems making sourdough check out this page for troubleshooting.

 

 

Ghoulishly Great Halloween Ideas

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If you’re throwing a Halloween party this year, scare your guests with spooky decorations and themed dishes instead of bottomless bowls of high-calorie candy. Here are the party treats that won’t play tricks on your waistline that I shared on WCNC’s Charlotte Today:

Spooky Appetizers

Starting off, every Halloween party needs a witch and you’ll know she’s flying nearby if you see these easy-to-assemble pretzel cheese broomsticks from Mom Foodie.

Witches' brooms

Bats and witches naturally go together and I loved this recipe from Tastefully Simple for bats made out of deviled eggs. I used a lower fat mayo because it contains fewer calories and smoked paprika because adds so much flavor!

Deviled egg Bats

I used Green Mountain Farms cream cheese (four times the protein compared to regular cream cheese plus live and active cultures – i.e. probiotics) and  good-quality shredded cheddar cheese to make Beth of Hungry Happenings cute Cheddar Monsterscheddar monsters

After learning what was in a hot dog when I was a teenager (scrap meat) I said “no thank you.” Now you can find newer and better hot dogs including the uncured turkey hot dogs I used to make mummy dogs.

A Better Fall Beverage

Fall means apple cider and you can either make your own (and make it low-calorie with a sugar substitute) or buy it (I recommend getting it from an apple farm). If you make yourself be sure to add cinnamon and allspice.  In addition to adding flavor, like apples, both also add antioxidants.

Desserts that will DelightHalloween Dess

Strawberry ghosts are so easy to make that very young children can help. Melt a white chocolate for candy decorations (some brands of white chocolate may not melt or dry as well) and dip washed and throughly dried strawberries in the chocolate while letting the rest of chocolate flow off the strawberry. Use mini chocolate chips for eyes. Melt chocolate chips and pour in a <Wilton Candy Eyeballs
. Cut a small bit off the tip of the bag so the icing can flow through. Now, make your mouth.

Follow the package directions for rice krispie treats (I substituted a light butter spread with no hydrogenated oils for  butter) to Rice Krispie pumpkins. Once your rice krispie treats are made, turn off the heat and immediately add a tiny bit of orange dye and mix it throughout the rice krispies (I used food gloves that I found in Wal-mart so my hands wouldn’t turn orange). Next, shape your rice krispie batter into pumpkins. Let these cool off at room temperature for at least an hour. Instead of using  candy for the stem, I cut a whole-grain breakfast bar into stems for each pumpkin. Next I placed a small bit of green icing from a green icing tube (Betty Crocker and Wilton make these. Find the tips that go with these particular brands right next to the icing and buy one with a leaf tip.) onto the top of the pumpkin and then set my breakfast bar stem into the pumpkin. After this I piped a few leaves around the stem of the pumpkin.

Spider Cookies
A Spicy Perspective had the cutest spider cookies that I found on Pinterest. Click here for the recipe. I substituted one third of the flour for whole wheat flour and may work with this recipe a little more in the future. You can also lower the sugar content of the cookies (or any baked goods) by substituting all natural Swerve Sweetener for most or all of the sugar. As my colleague Molly Kimball, RD, CSSD, an expert at working with Swerve says “many recipes call for so MUCH sugar” and you can easily reduce the amount in savory dishes (and the amount of Swerve if you use it) but, in baked good sugar provides “bulk” which makes sugar reduction a little tricky. Instead of using a truffle in the middle, I made protein balls with peanut flour (high protein and a good or excellent source of several vitamins and minerals as well as fiber) for the body of the spider.

Protein balls:

Ingredients
1 cup quick oats
1/2 cup honey
1 cup peanut butter
1/2 to 1 cup peanut flour or chocolate peanut flour (find this right next to peanut butter in the grocery store or on amazon – Jif Regular and Chocolate Peanut Powder).

Directions
Mix the oats, honey and peanut butter in a mixer (I use the heavy duty KitchenAid). Next add peanut flour in small amounts until balls can be shaped but are not too dry (all protein is drying, it sucks the moisture out and the amount of flour you use depends a little on the texture of the peanut butter). Once your mix is easy to handle and shape in balls, shape small balls for the spider’s body. Dip each body into melted chocolate melts and let the excess drain off. Quickly add the eyes (Wilton Candy Eyeballs) before the chocolate dries. Next, place the chocolate dipped protein ball onto the head of the cookie. Next, using your melted chocolate in an icing bag (cake decorating bag), pipe the lines of the spider on the cookie.

Oftentimes the excitement of Halloween isn’t the candy, which is available all year long in different packaging but instead, the decorations. So, if you are throwing a party for kids or adults, decorate each room, use Halloween themed napkins, cups and plates and serve healthier food and drink options that incorporate the Halloween spirit. Get your guests up and moving by setting out fun games they can participate in – treasure hunts and bean bag tosses. Plus you can keep kids active by setting out sidewalk chalk, pumpkin decorating kits and other craft ideas.

Swerve is an al natural sweetener that is made from erythritol (erythritol is naturally found in many fruits and vegetables) and oligosaccharides. Oligosaccharides are a type of prebiotic fiber (prebiotic fiber stimulates the  growth of healthy bacteria in your gut) that has a naturally sweet taste.