3 Weight Loss Truths

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If you haven’t been bombarded with weight loss ads over the past week, you’re probably on a remote island soaking up the sun with the waves gently teasing your feet (bring me next time). There’s something about the start of a New Year that makes people freak out, lose their senses and develop completely unrealistic eating plans they will never follow for more than a few days. Before you get sucked into a crazy diet or juice cleanse, you should know the top three truths about weight loss.


1) No One Eats “Clean” all of the Time

Instagram and Facebook are full of photos of broccoli, brown rice and chicken meals neatly placed in Tupperware and followed by #mealprep #eatclean. The only thing more boring than looking at these meals is eating them day after day. No one eats like this all of the time. No one.
I’ve worked with a number of elite athletes who cut weight before a fight, match or event. They diet down, compete then loosen up their diet a bit before they need to diet down again. They aren’t eating bodybuilding-type meals every day year-round.

2) There is No One Perfect Diet

Jenny Craig, Weight Watchers, juice cleanses, Paleo, Whole30. There is no “perfect” because what’s right for you isn’t necessarily right for me. Figure out what changes you can realistically stick with, combine these with the general principles of healthy eating and start there. Forget what everyone else is doing, how your neighbor dropped 50 lbs. or what the actress on the cover of a magazine did. If you can’t stick with a plan, it won’t work.

Progress, not perfection, is the goal.

Celebrate each “win,” those small changes you’ve made that will add up to a big difference. You won’t necessarily notice a weight loss right away by making a few simple switches in your diet. However, I would rather people focus on the immediate difference – more energy, feeling better, more sleep, than the number on the scale. Feeling better each day will drive you to continue when the scale isn’t moving much.

3) You Must Exercise for Weight Loss

Can you lose weight without exercising? Yes absolutely. However, if you do not exercise you will lose more of your weight as muscle then fat. In addition to burning fewer calories each day when you lose muscle, you will notice a decline in strength and as you get older and everyday activities will become harder to do – lifting groceries, gardening, washing your car.

If you are not an exerciser and typically fall off when you start a new workout program, figure out what you like to do and do it. Forget all of the back-and-forth “noise” about high intensity interval training, the amount of rest in between sets and if you should train until muscle failure (until you cannot possibly lift the weight again). Instead, determine what brings you joy. What do you love to do? Dancing, yoga, hiking? What did you love doing as a kid? Hula hooping, double Dutch jump rope?

Do what makes you happy. Get moving and stay moving.

In addition to following these weight-loss truths, spend time feeling good about your body every single day. I meet so many people that are hyper focused on losing 5 pounds or 50 lbs. As they rattle off the reasons why they want to lose body fat and how this will drastically alter their life and make them happy, my mind often drifts off. I wonder what percentage of their thoughts are consumed by losing weight and dieting and if they are hyper-focused on controlling this aspect of their life because something else isn’t right. A marriage, their job, a friendship, their child’s behavior. If I ask the right questions something else they are ignoring often comes up.

Maintaining weight within a good range is very important for overall health. Obsessing about weight and dieting isn’t. I’ve coached enough people to know that one day you’ll look back years from now and wonder why you wasted so much time hating your body.

You’ll look back and say, “damn, I looked good! I wish I felt better about myself.”

“I wish I wore shorts in the summer.”

“Why didn’t I go to the beach in a bathing suit?”

“I wish I went to that party.”

I promise you, no one is criticizing your body. Every one around you is too busy focused on themselves. So go out and wear shorts, put on a bathing suit, try on that dress.

If you don’t love your body now, you won’t feel your best every day. You won’t enjoy life to the fullest. Work in this first (or in conjunction with healthy eating / a healthy approach to weight loss).

Because it’s a waste of time to spend your days bashing the body that does so much for you.

Are Low Carbohydrate Diets Best for Weight Loss?

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If you haven’t been bombarded with advertising for low carbohydrate foods, diets, plans and crazed anti-carbohydrate friends and coworkers in the past few years, you must be living on a remote island somewhere (taking any visitors?). The anti-carbohydrate, pro-fat crowd (including keto, Paleo, and Whole 30 – aka Paleo reinvented) devotees might be onto something. But that “something” isn’t a miraculous cure for obesity. Should you trade your low fat, higher carbohydrate diet for full fat foods and “bread” made from cauliflower and mozzarella cheese? It’s time to look past the media headlines to the latest research on low fat vs. low carbohydrate diets.

In this article I’ll cover:

  • the latest research on lower carbohydrate diets;
  • what this research means for you; and
  • a sidenote on the insulin hypothesis.

Should you switch to low carbohydrate vs. high carbohydrate foods?

The Latest Research on Low Carbohydrate Diets

In an attempt to determine which diet is best for weight loss, one of the latest studies collected and analyzed studies on low fat and low carbohydrate diets. A systematic review and meta-analysis, which combines the results of several studies, compared intervention studies > 1 year in length where participants were placed on low fat diets, low carbohydrate diets, other high fat dietary interventions or they continued eating whatever they wanted (their typical diet). Low fat diets ranged from  < 10% of calories from fat to < 30% of calories from fat. The diet interventions used ranged from providing instructions at the start of the study and expecting participants to follow the diet plan to regular counseling sessions with dietitians, food diaries and cooking lessons to actual feeding studies where participants were given most of their overall food intake (with the last approach the most well-controlled). Some studies coached participants to cut calories while others, including those put on low-carbohydrate Atkins-style diets, were told to eat until they were full without worrying about calories.

They analyzed results from 13 trials that examined weight maintenance as well as studies that didn’t include weight loss as a primary goal. In these studies low-fat and high-fat diets lead to a similar amount of weight loss. Low-fat diets were superior only when compared to the subjects’ normal diet – in other words actually going on a diet led to greater weight loss than not dieting (no surprise there). The tiebreaker came from an analysis of 35 weight loss trials, 29 of which were conducted using adults who were overweight, obese, or had type II diabetes. Overall, there was no difference between low-fat and high-fat diet interventions. Low-fat diets led to greater weight loss compared to groups who didn’t diet. However, higher fat diets were the clear winner (according to the headlines), leading to significantly greater weight loss after a year than low fat diets. Before tossing out your steel cut oatmeal, whole-grain bread and fresh Summer fruit, let’s take a closer look at this data. It was pulled from a comparison between low-fat diets and high-fat diets that varied by more than 5% of calories. So did low carbohydrate, higher fat diets really win or was it because subjects cut calories? Is it easier to cut calories on low carbohydrate, high fat diets? Participants on low carbohydrate diets lost about 2.2 pounds more weight after one year versus those on a low-fat diet. A 2.2-pound difference in weight loss after one year on a diet isn’t very impressive, especially considering many of the subjects were overweight or obese to begin with.

The End of Higher Carbohydrate, Low-Fat Diets?

Based on these results the authors suggest low-fat diets shouldn’t be the go-to recommendation for weight loss. However, the results of this study are mainly applicable to overweight, obese and type II diabetics – the primary populations examined in these studies. We can’t take the authors conclusion that low carbohydrate, higher fat diets are better if you are looking to lose a few pounds for a beach ready body. What works for an obese adult or type II diabetic will not necessarily work for an active adult who wants to get a 6-pack. Secondly, previous research shows low carbohydrate diets tend to produce greater weight loss, initially, than low fat diets (some of this is water weight since carbohydrates store 3-4 times their weight in water in the form of glycogen in muscles and the liver and your glycogen stores will start dropping when you drastically lower your carbohydrate intake) yet after a year, weight loss is equivalent between both diets. Other research shows weight loss over the first six months on a diet is the main predictor of both weight loss success and sticking to a diet over the long-term. Greater weight loss initially = better adherence = better success over time.

Long-term Success

What’s more disappointing than the paltry 2.2-pound difference between the low-fat and high-fat diets after one year is the total average weight loss in the studies designed for weight loss – a mere 8.25 lbs. after 1 year. Instead of declaring low carbohydrate, higher fat diets a clear winner over low fat, higher carbohydrate diets (especially considering the 2.2 pound difference), we should be asking why it’s tough to stay on a diet, any diet? Why aren’t study participants losing more weight? I don’t have the answer to these questions and leading weight loss researchers don’t seem to have a complete picture right now either.

If you want to lose weight, choose a lower calorie diet primarily based on high quality foods or create your own plan that fits into your lifestyle and is one you can stick with it. There are many diets that could, potentially, work for you. If you want to try a low carbohydrate diet for a while, by all means go for it (especially if you need to see that number on the scale move pretty quickly)! If cutting carbs sounds like being in detention, then skip that approach! I’m giving you permission to alter your plan as often as you need to based on changes in your lifestyle (some research papers actually suggest doing this and I am a huge fan of this approach), motivation, and results.

Conceptually, low carbohydrate diets are very easy. You don’t have to worry about portion sizes, log calories, count points or determine if you have to eat less at dinner to make up for a lunchtime splurge. Decision-making is boiled down to: it contains carbs and therefore off my diet or it is low in carbs and the carbs it does contain are high in fiber so I can eat it. Just don’t buy into the hype that low fat, higher carbohydrate diets are the only way to lose weight or that these diets are better, over the long term, than other dietary approaches that also cut calories.

References

Tobias DK, Chen M, Manson JE, Ludwig DS, Willett W, Hu FB. Effect of low-fat diet interventions versus other diet interventions on long-term weight change in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Epub before print. 29 October 2015.

Greenberg I, Stampfer MJ, Schwarzfuchs D, Shai I; DIRECT Group. Adherence and success in long-term weight loss diets: the dietary intervention randomized controlled trial (DIRECT). J Am Coll Nutr 2009;28(2):159-68.

Franz MJ, VanWormer JJ, Crain AL, Boucher JL, Histon T, Caplan W, Bowman JD, Pronk NP. Weight-loss outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of weight-loss clinical trials with a minimum 1-year follow-up. J Am Diet Assoc 2007;107(10):1755-67.

Hall KD. Predicting metabolic adaptation, body weight change, and energy intake in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2010;298(3):E449-66.

Hall KD, Sacks G, Chandramohan D, Chow CC, Wang YC, Gortmaker SL, Swinburn BA. Quantification of the effect of energy imbalance on bodyweight. Lancet 2011; 378(9793).

Rosqvist F, Iggman D, Kullberg J, Cedernaes J, Johansson HE, Larsson A, Johansson L6, Ahlström H, Arner P, Dahlman I, Risérus U. Overfeeding polyunsaturated and saturated fat causes distinct effects on liver and visceral fat accumulation in humans. Diabetes 2014;63(7):2356-68.

 

 

 

Your Cooking Oil is Harming Your Health and Aging You

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Bottle of Olive Oil with Wooden Spoon --- Image by © Radius Images/Corbis
Bottle of Olive Oil with Wooden Spoon — Image by © Radius Images/Corbis

If you open a bottle of cooking oil and take months to finish it, heat, light and air start to break down the oil, making it rancid. At best, it smells and tastes different. At worse – potentially toxic compounds are produced in the oil. In this article, I’ll share how to prevent the introduction of bad compounds, how to choose the right product and store it properly and discuss the difference between regular vs. extra virgin olive oil.

Choose the Right Oil for Cooking & Throw Out Your Deep Fat Fryer

For high heat cooking, choose an oil with a high smoke point. When an oil hits it’s smoke point it breaks down and becomes rancid. Rancid oils may smell or taste bad (though sadly some people are accustomed to this taste as “normal”) and may contain toxic compounds, some of which are believe to contribute to cell aging (1, 2, 3). In general, refined oils have a higher smoke point than those that are unrefined. Refer to the usage instructions on the bottle to find out if it be used for high heat cooking.

Use Type of Oil Smoke Point (3) Greater likelihood of Oxidation (> 50 PUFA %) (4) 
Baking
Cooking
Stir Frying
Almond
Avocado
Canola
Grapeseed
Hazelnut
Peanut
Olive
Palm
Pecan
Safflower
Sunflower
High Almond
Grapeseed
Hazelnut
Safflower
Sunflower
Light sautéing
Sauces
Low-heat baking
Coconut
Corn
Hempseed
Macadamia nut, refined
Sesame, refined
Soybean
Walnut – refrigerate after opening
Medium Corn
Flaxseed
Hempseed
Soybean
Walnut
Dressings
Dips
Sauces
*Refrigerate these after opening
Flaxseed
Pumpkin seed
Wheat Germ
Low

In addition to using the right oil for what you are cooking or baking, throw out your deep fat fryer and quit eating fried foods (or at the very least, throw out the oil after each use). Food manufacturers and restaurants re-use oils over and over for frying. After several days they finally throw it out and replace it with fresh oil (5). Each time the oil is used it loses some of its integrity and the smoke point lowers. And though it may take several uses before it becomes rancid (depending on the type used, frying time, heat and other factors), frying decreases the amount of antioxidants in the oil (greater frying time = fewer antioxidants), changes it’s chemical structure and produces trans fatty acids (repeated heating of oil, prolonged heating and heating in an iron container all increase the formation of trans fatty acids) and volatile compounds (such as aldehydes, triacylglycerol oxidation products including alkoxy, epoxy, keto monomeric compounds, and higher molecular weight oxidation products) (6, 7, 8, 9, 10).

Store it Properly

Store your oil in a cool and dry place away from direct sunlight (some oils should be refrigerated – as noted above). When possible, buy oil in dark glass containers. When monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids in oil react with oxygen they become oxidized and form a variety of chemicals, several of which are toxic (aldehydes, ketones, alkenals). The production of these compounds speeds up when the oil is exposed to heat and light or metals are present. More polyunsaturated fat = greater likelihood of oxidation so check your oil’s PUFA content above and if its high, buy smaller quantities of this oil and smell-check it frequently. If it smells different than when you bought it, toss it in the trash.

What is Extra Virgin Olive Oil vs. Olive Oil?

U.S. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the oil resulting from the first pressing of olives and is suitable for human consumption without further processing. It has “excellent flavor and odor” (smell).

U.S. Virgin Olive Oil is olive oil obtained by picking and processing olives, or blends of virgin refined olive oil. It has “reasonably good flavor and odor.”

U.S. Olive Oil is a blend of refined and virgin olive oils.

Refined Olive Oil is sold as “Olive oil” or “Pure olive oil” and is the oil obtained from subsequent pressings (after the first pressing) and suitable for human consumption by refining processes which neutralize the acidity or remove particulate. Heating, neutralizing, bleaching and deodorizing may be used (10, 11).

“‘Light olive oil refers only to the flavor and is determined by the amount of extra virgin olive oil added to the refined olive oil.” (12)

Choose an olive oil in a dark glass bottle. California Olive Ranch is a good brand, as are the ones on this list. Or, if you want amazing authentic olive oil from trees that are 2,000 – 3,000 years old, order olive oil from this Masseria in the Puglia region of Italy.

Is Canola Oil Harmful?

If you’ve heard that canola oil is harmful, read this post for a good explanation of oil processing techniques.

There are plenty of oil choices depending on your desire for taste and a temperature you are using.

References
1 J Oleo Sci. 2008;57(3):153-60.
2 Toxicol Mech Methods 2006;16(5):267-74.
3 Deep Fat Frying and Food Safety. USDA.
4 Food Nutr Res. 2011;55:10.5
5 Nahrung 2002;46(6):420-6.
6 Food Chem 2007;104(4):1740–1749.
7 Eur J Lipid Sci Tech 2002;104(12):785–791.
8 J Food Sci Technol 2014;51(6):1076-84.
9 Chem Phys Lipids 2012;165(6):662-81.
10 J Sci Food Agric 2012;92(11):2227-33.
10 Guidance for Industry: A Food Labeling Guide (12. Appendix D: Qualified Health Claims). U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
11 United States Standards for Grades of Olive and Olive-PomaceEffective October 25, 2010. USDA.
12 Grading Manual for Olive and Olive-Pomace. USDA. Effective May 2012.

 

Best Gluten Free Foods from Expo East 2014

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Fueled by the rise in celiac disease (which affects an estimated 1 in 133 people), non-celiac gluten sensitivity (which might actually be due to FODMAPs) and media attention surrounding gluten, the gluten free market is growing faster than other segments within the food industry. If you are gung-ho on gluten free, here are my favorite finds (based on taste and nutrition – except for the desserts of course) from Natural Products Expo East. If you aren’t sure if you should be gluten free, read this post.

Pastas & Wraps

High protein pastas? There are plenty on the market now though some are easier to find than others. All of the ones below aren’t just gluten free but also made with beans, peas or lentils making them high in fiber as well.

I fell in love with Explore Asian bean pastas a few years ago at Expo East. And I’m thrilled this pasta is now on store shelves (click here for a store locator). I sampled the edamame bean pasta tossed with Kirkland brand pesto sauce (talk about an easy meal) at their booth this year and it was delicious! Check out their website for a store locator – I’ve seen it at Costco and a few other stores near me.

High protein pastas made from beans.
High protein pastas made from beans.

Banza chickpea pasta is brand new and only available online right now. And though I didn’t get to try it (they didn’t have samples out), I’m intrigued by it’s higher fiber (which means lower “net carbs” for those who look for this) and higher protein content.

Banza Chickpea Pasta
Banza Chickpea Pasta

Tolerant Foods makes a gluten free, non GMO, organic legume pasta.  Each serving of their Red Lentil or Black Bean pasta has 21 – 23 grams of protein and 13 – 15 grams of fiber.

Tolerant Black Bean and Red Lentil Pastas
Tolerant Black Bean and Red Lentil Pastas

In addition to pastas, Paleo followers who miss their wraps will love this new coconut wrap. Gluten free, Paleo diet friendly and if you love coconut you’ll really like The Pure Wraps.

Pure Wraps - Coconut Wraps
Pure Wraps – Coconut Wraps

Breakfast

My favorite cereal from the show is Attune Foods Ewehorn Buckwheat and Hemp.Buckwheat is actually a vegetable and this cereal is not only very tasty (especially if you like the taste of hearty whole grains) but also very filling thanks to its high fiber content. Buckwheat is actually a vegetable and this cereal is not only very tasty (especially if you like the taste of hearty whole grains) but also very filling thanks to its high fiber content.

Also try The Toasted Oat Granola. I almost walked right by this booth in the new products section (because there are so many granolas on the market) but this one is different – it’s chewy. I absolutely love this because it stands out among different granolas on the market today and provides an option for adults who have had problems with their teeth and have been told to avoid hard foods like granola and nuts.

The Toasted Oat chewy granola
The Toasted Oat chewy granola

Another great breakfast option – FlapJacked. Sure you could make your own high protein pancakes but, if you don’t have time, check out FlapJacked. Just add water, mix, pour into a pan sprayed with non-stick spray or lightly coated with oil and flip once the sides start to cook (this is important! Flip them too soon and they will be very flat).

Dessert 

If you are a chip lover, check out Simply 7 Snacks Quinoa chips. High in protein and fiber and their sour cream and dill is better than any similar flavored potato chip on the market today.

I fell in love with roasted chickpeas last winter. I love crunch and salt and these are the perfect substitution for potato chips (seriously, they taste great when you add spices – I make them by brushing them with olive oil and sprinkling garlic salt on top). However, if you don’t want to good, Saffron Road has flavored chickpeas that will make your taste buds dance with delight.

On the sweet side, Nothin’ But Granola – I can’t even describe how good this is. I walked by and grabbed a bite, stopped in my tracks and went back for more. It comes in soft bars or bites.

I’m a fan of both Immaculate Baking Company and Betty Crocker’s gluten free mixes but, XO Baking Company is on an entirely different level. Those are the best boxed mix gluten free cookies I have ever tried. In fact, they were so good they beat out any non-gluten free mixes I’ve tried too. The founder of XO Baking Company, Lindsey Deitsch, has a neat story as well. She’s been baking ever since she was a child and once diagnosed with celiac disease she set out to make better tasting baked goods. Lindsey has a degree in Public Health and is a chef as well. All gluten free bakeries and restaurants need to buy these in bulk – your customers will thank you.

XO Baking Company - gluten free & amazing taste!
XO Baking Company – gluten free & amazing taste!

Pros and Cons of Grain Brain, Wheat Belly and the Paleo Diet

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Diet books are tempting. They tell you the reason you’re overweight, what foods are “toxic” and how to get rid of them while strolling down the yellow brick road to lasting weight loss and good health. But there’s one main issue – many of these books aren’t based on scientific evidence but instead theories that are pulled out of thin air. “But my neighbor lost 50 lbs. following Paleo!” Well your neighbor cut out potato chips, beer and fried food in the process so of course he lost weight. The Paleo diet just gave him a convincing (even if scientifically inaccurate) reason to cut these foods out.

All of these diets have some pros and cons which I expand upon in this TV segment I did for Fox 5 and below the video:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KQyfQ5hf_Qc&feature=youtu.be

Gluten is a protein formed from other proteins (gliadins and glutenins; any single wheat plant may produce > 100 gliadins and > 50 glutenins) naturally found in wheat foods when wheat flour is mixed with water (the mechanical action of mixing plus the water are necessary). Other proteins that are similar to gluten are found in barley (hordiens) and rye (secalins). Gluten gives dough it’s tough elastic structure and contributes to the light and fluffy texture of baked goods. If it sounds complex, it is but here are the important points:

  • Wheat today doesn’t have more gluten (or create more gluten when mixed with water) than varieties from 70 years ago unless the manufacturer adds vital wheat gluten back to the food itself (J Plant Reg 2012;6(1)).
  • Wheat breeding is complex and focuses on creating varieties of wheat that meet what food makers and consumers are looking for – a flaky pie crust or nice soft wheat bread for instance.
  • Gluten isn’t an easy to digest protein (there are many foods we eat that are not completely broken down) but, this isn’t a problem for most people – only those with celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (which might not be due to gluten alone but instead FODMAPs).

Paleo: What You Need to Know

The Paleo diet is based on one main principle: if we eat like our hunter-gatherer ancestors who lived between 2.6 million to 10,000 years ago, before the start of the agricultural revolution, we will avoid modern diseases such as heart disease as well as infections.

This diet is based on grass-produced meats, fish/seafood, fresh fruits and vegetables, eggs, nuts and seeds and “healthful” oils. Everything else is off limits.

Paleo’s Glaring Oversights:

  • there was no one single Paleo diet – diets varied based on region and time period (check out Christina Warinner’s TED talk on this)
  • In several regions, well over 10,000 years ago and possibly even a few million years ago, people ate grains and legumes.
  • Examination of mummies tells us that all people from this time period had clogged arteries.
  • The fruits, vegetables and meats we have today look nothing like what our ancestors ate (ex: fruit were small, tough and bitter).
  • Our ancestors hunted and gathered food – in other words, their daily lives included physical activity (both strength training which builds muscle and bone and aerobic exercise).

Paleo – What’s Good:

  • The Paleo diet cuts out our top sources of calories in the US including alcohol, desserts and sugar sweetened beverages.
  • It’s loaded with protein which will keep you full for a longer period of time after eating and help you build muscle.
  • Plenty of fruits and vegetables!

Paleo – What’s Bad:

  • No legumes (peas, beans, lentils and peanuts) – legumes are rich in fiber, potassium, magnesium (some), iron (some), antioxidants and more.
  • No grains. Grains provide a good bit of the fiber in the average American diet in addition to folate, other vitamins and antioxidants.
  • No dairy – our top source of bone building calcium and vitamin D. Now, I know what some self proclaimed nutrition experts will say here – people in Africa (or insert other country here) don’t consume much calcium and they don’t have as many cases of osteoporosis as we do in the U.S. Go to Africa, conduct dietary recalls (to see what they are indeed eating) and then follow a group of women around for several days. The women I met from Africa a few years ago were big and strong thanks to farm work (in their particular country the women do all the farming). They walked (far) with buckets of water on their head daily (fantastic way to build bone density in the spine!). I don’t know any females in the U.S. who get near the bone building activity these women are getting on a daily basis. So, this is far from a valid comparison. (SN: I haven’t even bothered to research the incidence of osteoporosis here vs. Africa because I’d be comparing a largely sedentary desk-sitting population to one with different genetics that also gets bone building activity for hours each day).

Diet magic? Follow anything that makes you cut calories and you’ll lose weight. Eat more protein and you’ll tend to lose more fat than muscle.