Sourdough – Safe for Gluten Sensitivity?

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There’s something special about sourdough bread. Made through a slow process that begins with simple ingredients, warm water and flour, yeast and bacteria feast on the flour’s carbohydrate, producing carbon dioxide gas and bubbles that expand the dough. Each batch may tastes a little different depending on the flour and water used as well as the environment the starter is made in. My favorite sourdough bread, the kind that is made over the course of several days, has an alluring pungent, slightly sour taste. This long fermentation process leads to more complex flavors while also creating bread that is easier for those with gluten sensitivity to digest. I shared the science behind sourdough in this segment on Fox TV:

What is Gluten?

Gluten’s stretchy fibers give dough it’s rubberband-like elasticity allowing it to stretch when pizza dough is tossed in the air like a frisbee. Gluten-rich dough traps air and water during the baking process so bread rises with delicate ease, producing light and fluffy baked goods. Without wheat (and therefore gluten, which is produced when wheat flour is mixed with water), gluten free items require a blend of flours, starches and additives yet they still can’t replicate the texture of gluten-containing baked goods.

In people with celiac disease, an autoimmune digestive disease, repeated exposure to gluten damages villi, fingerlike projections in the small intestine that help us absorb nutrients from food. Over time, a decrease in nutrient absorption can lead to anemia, osteoporosis, miscarriages and other complications. The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center website lists over 300 symptoms associated with celiac disease though anemia is the most common symptom in adults. The only available treatment is a strict gluten free diet – which helps reverse intestinal damage over time. Gluten sensitivity is not an autoimmune disease but instead a vague medical condition without a uniform definition or diagnostic test at this time. People with gluten sensitivity report various symptoms triggered by the ingestion of gluten-containing foods including abdominal pain, bloating, and constipation or diarrhea. Though gluten sensitivity is real, someone who thinks they have sensitivity may actually be reacting to something other than gluten (another protein or the starches – see below under Is it the Gluten?)

Sourdough bread

The Science behind Sourdough

Standard yeast leads to a fast fermentation process. This ramps up production speed and it is also foolproof so companies can produce batches of bread at warp speed. Sourdough bread is made slowly, over time, letting the yeast work it’s magic to deliver an array of flavors as well as bread that is easier to digest. In one study, sourdough bread made with selected sourdough lactobacilli and long-time fermentation resulted in bread with gluten levels of 12 parts per million (ppm), which qualifies for gluten-free (anything below to 20 ppm is gluten free). A long fermentation process allows bacteria and yeast adequate time to feed on proteins and starches breaking them down into more digestible parts. Yet sourdough also boasts a lower glycemic index than many other types of bread (including white bread) and therefore it doesn’t lead to a quick spike in blood sugar levels.

In 2011, a small study conducted in Italy tried giving volunteers with celiac disease a small amount of specially prepared sourdough bread. The bread was fermented until the gluten was broken down to more easily digestible parts. The subjects in the study reacted well to the sourdough, with no changes in intestinal villi and no detectable antibodies typically found when a celiac disease patient eats a gluten containing food. According to the study authors, the bread “was not toxic to patients with celiac disease.”

In another study, conducted over 60 days, baked goods made from hydrolyzed wheat flour, manufactured with sourdough lactobacilli and fungal proteases, was not toxic to patients with celiac disease. Though these studies are groundbreaking, it is far too soon for celiac disease patients to try this at home. For sourdough bread to be an option for those with celiac disease, a uniform production process would need to be established to ensure the end product is gluten-free.

For those with Gluten Sensitivity, Is it Really the Gluten?

Some people may experience bloating and flatulence in response to FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols). FODMAPs are a type of carbohydrates that are not well absorbed in the small intestine and are present in bread along with a number of other foods (other grains, some vegetables and fruits). In some people the problem may be FODMAPs, not gluten. The long fermentation process reduces FODMAPs.

How to Make Sourdough at Home

Sourdough starter begins with flour and water that sits for several days while being fed intermittently with both flour and water allowing bacteria (lactobacilli) and yeast to grow and multiply creating live cultures. These microorganisms are what makes the dough ferment similar to the way milk ferments to become yogurt. Check out these recipes to make your own sourdough bread: Healthy Aperture, the Perfect Loaf.

If you run into problems making sourdough check out this page for troubleshooting.

 

 

The Truth about Detox Diets

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Detox Diets and Cleanses

Detox diets promise to clean up the mess left behind from daily life so you feel better, more energetic and lose excess body fat. Consider them the Merry Maids for your body. They come with an army of equipment and compounds to attack years of buildup from environmental toxins, pesticides, allergens, waste, and inflammatory substances. This “sewage sludge” is stuck to your gut, interfering with digestion, leaving you bloated, tired, fat and with joints and muscles that feel like they are on fire.

In theory this sounds great. But there’s one glaring issue. The human body doesn’t need to “detox” because it comes equipped with organs designed to remove waste products. Plus, many detox diets are simply very low calorie plans with added laxatives and diuretics (because instant, yet temporary, weight loss might fool you into believing the outrageous claims on detox and cleansing products). Instead of wasting your money, take the top 3 good points about many of these diets and incorporate them into your overall nutrition plan:

Drink More Water

There are a few studies showing that individuals who are obese can lose weight by drinking 2 glasses of water before each meal. Plus, many people don’t get enough water or total fluids each day anyway and dehydration can make you feel sluggish and grouchy. So, grab it from the tap or if it’s more convenient, fill up your stainless steal water bottles and carry them with you at all times.

Eat More Fruits and Vegetables

The average American is falling short on fruit and vegetable intake. According to the National Cancer Institute, people with diets rich in plant foods, such as fruits and vegetables, have a lower risk of getting some types of cancer as well as diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure. Produce generally has fewer calories than many other foods making it a great addition to a weight loss diet.

Get Friendly with Bacteria

Many detox plans include unfiltered apple cider vinegar – the kind that has a cloudy appearance – is full of probiotics. Probiotics are friendly (beneficial) bacteria – the kind that live in your gut and have a number of important functions in your body. Improving your gut bacteria may support immune functioning, improve the health of your intestinal tract, increase your body’s absorption of certain nutrients and alleviate constipation. Apple cider vinegar is acidic so I don’t recommend drinking it straight. Instead, dilute it in a big glass of water or another beverage. Other great sources of probiotics include kefir, yogurt (check the container for “live and active cultures”), miso soup, tempeh, sauerkraut, kimchi.

Add 2 glasses of water before each meal, load up on vegetables and fruits and make an effort to consume probiotic-rich food daily and you will reap the rewards of better nutrition without wasting money on detox diets and cleanses.

References:
Parvez J et al. J Appl Microbio 2006;100(6):1171-1185.
Parretti HM et al. Obesity 2015, 23(8):1785-1791.
Dennis EA et al. Obesity 2010;18(2):300-307.

 

What Causes Muscle Cramps? How Can I Prevent Them?

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Muscle cramp
There are two main types of muscle cramps. If you can identify which one you are experiencing you may be able to stop cramping sooner and prevent future cramps.

Localized Muscle Cramping

Localized muscle cramps happen suddenly when a muscle is overworked and tired.

They feel like: constant pain.

Risk factors include: several factors may contribute to localized muscle cramping including: older age, history of cramping, metabolic disturbances, poor conditioning (or increasing the intensity of your training before you are ready) and not stretching. 

Treatment: for this type of cramping should include passive stretching, massage, active contraction of the antagonist or opposing muscle group (for instance, if your hamstrings are cramping, contract your quads), and icing.

Prevention:  Stretching (hold your stretch for at least 30 seconds), using proper movement patterns (biomechanics) and making sure you are conditioned before increasing the intensity of your training.

Exertional Heat Cramps

Exertional heat cramps are due to extensive sweating and low sodium levels from not consuming enough sodium and/or losing too much sodium through sweat.

They feel like: initially you may feel brief, spontaneous contractions that take time to develop followed by debilitating, widespread muscle spasms.

Risk factors include: high sweat rate, little sodium intake (especially if you lose a lot of sodium through sweat or over consume water or other no or low sodium drinks).

Treatment: replacing both fluid and sodium losses as soon as you start cramping. You can use an electrolyte replacement product or table salt! IVs are sometimes used to expedite this process. Massage and ice can also help relax the muscles and relieve discomfort.

Prevention: if you are a “salty sweater” – you see white salt crystals on your clothes, face or other parts of your body, be sure to salt your food prior to training and competing and consume enough sodium in your sports drink to prevent excessive sodium losses.

If you know what type of cramps you are prone to, you can better incorporate prevention methods and have treatment options readily available to stop cramping as soon as possible [ice, sports drinks, electrolyte products, table salt (restaurant salt packets in a ziplock bag always come in handy), a good athletic trainer nearby etc.].

As a review, here are your prevention strategies for cramping:

  • If you have a history of heat cramping, know that your cramps will likely reoccur at some point during training or competition.
  • Make sure you are conditioned before increasing the load or intensity of your training.
  • Incorporate stretching or hot yoga into your training regimen.
  • Give your body time to adjust to changes in elevation, heat and humidity.
  • Salt your food!
  • Do not over-consume water or any other low or no sodium beverage or you’ll dilute your blood sodium level and set yourself up for cramps.
  • Weigh yourself pre- and post- training. For each lb lost, consume 20 – 24 oz of an electrolyte-replacement drink.
  • Work with a sports dietitian or athletic trainer (ATC) to develop a hydration-electrolyte plan that specifically meets your needs. Sports drinks do not contain enough sodium for salty sweaters and those prone to exertional heat cramps.

 

 

Help Dry Eyes with Better Nutrition

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Tears protect your eyes from dust, infections and pollution. And therefore, those with chronic dry eye, caused by either a decrease in tear production (the prescription drug Restasis helps this) or tears that evaporate too quickly, may notice their eyes are frequently so dry they hurt, sting or feel gritty. In addition, chronic dry eye can lead to blurred vision, heightened sensitivity to light or smoke/pollution, excessive tearing, or like someone took sandpaper and rubbed it on them. There are a number of causes of chronic dry eye including Lasik surgery, thyroid disorders, and certain autoimmune diseases (including Sjogren’s syndrome, which causes drying of the mucus membranes including the eyes, mouth and sinuses). If left untreated chronic dry eye can lead to irritation, inflammation, blurred vision, increased risk of developing an eye infection, and scarring of the cornea.

How can you soothe chronic dry eyes? Follow these steps:

  • First and foremost – see an ophthalmologist.
  • Drink plenty of fluid every day.
  • Eat fatty fish at least twice per week or consider a fish oil supplement (always tell your physician about any dietary supplements you are taking). I typically recommend at least 1 gram of EPA + DHA combined (check the label to see how much EPA and DHA the product contains per serving; EPA and DHA are the omega 3 fatty acids found in fish). Two grams decreases inflammation throughout the body.
  • Consider caffeine in moderation. One study found that caffeine may help increase tear production.
  • Cut down on antihistamine use if possible. Allegra, Zyrtec and other antihistamines can increase dryness. Decongestants also increase dry eye so weigh the benefits versus side effects before using them.
  • Use eye drops for dry eyes (not those for redness).
  • Put warm compresses on your eyes for 10-15 minutes at a time.
  • Cut down on diuretics unless they are prescribed by your physician.
  • Talk to your physician about all of your medications. Certain blood pressure drugs, birth control pills and other prescription medications can increase dryness.
  • Take breaks from the computer, TV, iPad and other electronics. Starring at these for hours may further decrease tear production.

Control Your Appetite with this Weight-loss Elixir

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Hundreds of thousands of dollars are spent on weight loss every year. And while some people win the battle of the bulge, many end up frustrated with a burning desire to throw their deluxe scale down the several flights of stairs they walk up everyday (with their pedometer on of course).

But, I’m going to tell you a secret. Weight loss doesn’t have to be that hard. Especially if you don’t measure yourself by pounds and ounces on a daily basis. There are many things you can do that add up over time and are guaranteed to work. And one of them is a magic potion that will you shed pounds, look and feel better. According to a study presented at the 240th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, two ounces of this potent potion, when taken before meals, will help you lose weight.

And folks, this drink is free. In fact, it comes right out of the faucets throughout your house. Yep, I’m talking about plain old water. Brenda Davy, PhD, RD and her team conducted the first randomized controlled intervention trial examining water consumption and weight loss. They found that those who drank water before each meal 3 times per day lost more weight than those who didn’t.

In the quest for a fab figure, don’t overlook the obvious. And, keep in mind that relying solely on weight loss pills or gimicky programs may make you forget the things you could be doing every day to lose weight. If you don’t like plain water, try a zero calorie beverage or bottled water (many of these taste better than tap water, especially if the tap water where you live isn’t that good).