Save Money at the Grocery Store, Improve Health & Save the Earth

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Food: Fruits and vegetables

 

 

Today is Earth Day, a day focused on building a healthy, sustainable environment. Keep the earth healthy, slash your grocery bill and improve your health at the same time. Here’s how:

Avoid Food Waste

In America, food is cheap and always available. This oversupply of food combined with food marketing means we over buy and end up throwing out an average of 31 – 41% of the food we purchase. In addition to throwing your hard earned dollar in the trash can, food waste drains the environment. Rotting fruits and vegetables, the top food wasted, uses fresh water and contributes to ethylene gas, methane and CO2 emissions all of which are harmful for our environment (1). “Food waste now accounts for more than one quarter of the total freshwater consumption and ∼300 million barrels of oil per year” (1). Rotting food produces a large amount of methane gas, a gas that has 25 times the impact of CO2 on global warming (3). Dairy products are second behind fruits and vegetables followed by meat, which has the biggest impact on the environment.
Here’s what you can do to avoid waste:

    1. Use a shopping list to prevent impulse buys. It doesn’t matter if it’s on sale if you will end up throwing it out.
    2. Buy small amounts and only what you need and will realistically use before it goes bad.
    3. Buy frozen and canned versions, which have the same nutrition value and you can use them at your convenience (metal cans are endlessly recyclable)
    4. Keep fruits and vegetables fresh or for longer period of time with products that decrease the production of ethylene gas (find them in your local natural food store in the produce section).
    5. Don’t automatically throw food out when the “use by” date arrives. That date is a measure of quality and not food safety. Assess your food to ensure it is still safe (smell your meat, poultry, fish, dairy, nuts and oils; make sure fruits and vegetables are not molded).
    6. Follow these tips from Reader’s Digest.

Choose Plant Proteins

Plant proteins typically cost less $ than meat, fish and poultry and they cost less in terms of environmental resources to produce – less water, fewer environmental gases produced. Plant proteins also deliver plant-based compounds that protect the body. When choosing plant proteins you may need more, per meal, to get the right amount of muscle building amino acids.  In addition to swapping out some meat-based meals, consider eating smaller amounts of meat and adding a plant protein as a side dish. Here are some excellent choices based on their nutrition profile:

  • Peas, split pea soup
  • Legumes, beans, bean pastas, lentils (I soak lentils for about 45 minutes and add them to a variety of dishes)
  • Soy foods including tofu, tempeh, edamame
  • Nut, bean and other flours –  substitute some of the flour in your  recipe for: pecan, peanut, almond, garbanzo bean, fava bean, black bean and other higher protein flours

Buy Staples in Bulk

Whole Foods, Sprouts, Wegmans and similar stores have a bulk section where you can get everything from black rice to oatmeal. Consider shopping in the bulk isle. You’ll save $ and food packaging!

Is Coffee Good for You?

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CoffeeDrinking coffee will leave you dehydrated and geeked out on caffeine. For several decades we’ve been warned about America’s favorite beverage. Yet these dire warnings were largely based on assumptions rather than actual science. A growing body of evidence suggests your morning Cup O’ Joe may be good for you! Here’s a look at the latest research.

What’s in a Coffee Bean?

Coffee beans are actually seeds from coffee cherries. They are picked, dried, and roasted turning them from green to those familiar aromatic brown beans we know and love. It’s ironic that a beverage made from seeds has gotten such a bad rap. Green coffee beans are naturally rich in antioxidants including chlorogenic acids, compounds that are readily absorbed in the human body, have antibacterial and anti-inflammatory actions and are associated with many health benefits including a reduction in cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. Antioxidants protect plants from disease and pests. Some antioxidants also protect human cells from harm. Roasted coffee beans are loaded with antioxidants (contrary to popular belief, they are not destroyed during roasting) and scientists are slowly uncovering the metabolic fate of each type antioxidant as well as the potential health benefits associated with regular coffee intake.

Potential Health Benefits

A National Institutes of Health study published in 2012 found older adults who drank caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee were less likely to die from heart disease, respiratory disease, stroke, injuries and accidents, diabetes, and infections. Those who drank over 3 cups per day had a 10% lower risk of death compared to those who did not drink coffee. Though this study only showed an association between coffee consumption and a decreased risk of death, it provided some reassurance to people who couldn’t seem to give up their favorite beverage. Studies published over the past three years lend strength to the relationship between regular coffee intake and a decreased risk of certain diseases.

Heart Health
A study published in the British Medical Journal’s publication Heart, examined diet and artery health in over 25,000 Korean men and women. Those who drank 3 to 5 cups of coffee per day were 19% less likely to have the first signs of atherosclerosis,  plaque buildup on artery walls, compared to those who were not coffee drinkers. Lower intakes were not associated with a reduction in plaque buildup. Drawbacks to this study: diet was examined at one point in time and study subjects were asked to recall their coffee intake over the previous year (people generally don’t recall their food / drink intake with great accuracy). Also, keep in mind this study showed an association between coffee intake and artery health, it doesn’t prove that coffee reduces plaque buildup on artery walls or that it can prevent cardiovascular disease. More research is needed to understand how coffee intake could potentially support heart health.

Cancer
A recently published study found individuals previously treated for stage III colon cancer who were regular coffee drinkers, consuming at least 4 cups of caffeinated coffee per day, had a 42% lower risk of recurrence of colon cancer and 33% lower risk of dying from the disease. This study found an association between coffee intake and decreased risk of colon cancer recurrence.

Research on coffee intake and risk of various cancers is mixed with some showing it is protective and others suggesting it may increase risk. Keep in mind there are many potential factors that impact cancer risk and risk of cancer recurrence with a sedentary lifestyle, high body fat and alcohol intake strongly associated with increased risk of certain types of cancer. Fruit and vegetable intake is associated with a decreased risk of some types of cancers. As for your Cup O’ Joe, time and more research, will tell us how America’s favorite beverage fits in the picture.

Should You Increase Your Coffee Intake?

All of these studies on regular coffee consumption include higher intakes. No benefits are noted for lower intakes – one to two cups per day. Keep in mind that some people should avoid or be cautious with caffeine intake including kids, teens, people with anxiety disorders, glaucoma, heartburn or cardiovascular disease. Also, pregnant women should avoid higher intakes of caffeine – more than 3 cups of coffee per day (regular sizes cups). Now about the caffeine – regular intake of moderate amounts of caffeine will not dehydrate you.

If you drink coffee in moderation, enjoy it! Don’t increase your intake based on these studies or start drinking if you aren’t a regular coffee consumer. Future research will tell us more about the many naturally occurring compounds in coffee, their actions in the body and the potential link between coffee and disease risk.

References
Heart 10.1136/heartjnl-2014-306663
New Eng J Med 2012;366:1891-1904.
J Nutr 2008;138(12):2309-15.
Mol Nutr Food Res 2005;49:274–84.
J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:8738–43.
Am J Epidemiol 2002;156:445–53.
Biol Pharm Bull 2006;29:2236–4
Pest Manag Sci 2003 Apr;59(4):459-64.
J Clin Oncol 2015 Aug 17. [Epub ahead of print]

 

 

Grass Fed Lies: The Truth about Organic Milk & Grass Fed Beef

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Cow

If you’ve been sucking up the extra cost of organic dairy products and grass fed beef, comforted by the fact that you’re doing what’s good for your body, I have some news for you: you’ve gained little more than peace of mind grounded in a marketing scam. There is no meaningful nutrition difference in organic milk, grass fed beef and their conventional (non organic / grass fed) counterparts.

The Truth about Organic Dairy

Organic milk is packed with omega-3 fatty acids, iron and vitamin D, according to an article published Feb. 16 in the British Journal of Nutrition. This meta-analysis examined the results from 170 published studies comparing the nutrient content of organic milk with conventional milk. They suggest organic milk wins by a landslide: it’s nutritionally superior to its conventional counterparts. Though there were no significant differences in saturated fat and monounsaturated fat in organic vs. conventional milk, organic milk has 56% more beneficial omega-3 fatty acids, 41% more conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), significantly more vitamin E and iron than conventional milk. Statistically speaking, they are scientifically correct. Nutritionally speaking, these differences are meaningless.

Organic milk contains 56% more omega-3 fats than regular (conventional) milk (56% more based on the total fat content). However, statistically more than a little bit is still a little bit. Milk is not considered a major source of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet, regardless of milk type. In fact, according to one study, 1 cup of organic whole milk has about 8.2 mg of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 11 mg of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) compared to 6.2 mg of EPA and 9.1 mg of DHA. That’s a far cry from the 250 – 500 mg of EPA + DHA we should get, on average, each day. Fatty fish are the best way to get EPA and DHA.

milk jug
Organic Milk:
19 mg EPA + DHA

Conventional Milk:
15 mg EPA + DHA

 

 

 

Salmon

Herring, Wild
Salmon, Farmed (Atlantic)
Salmon, Wild (King)
Mackerel, Wild

1,200 mg EPA + DHA

 

 

  • EPA and DHA are heart smart – they lower blood fats (triglycerides) and blood pressure. Plus they’re good for your brain and eyes.

What about CLA? CLA is group of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in meat and milk. There are many proposed benefits associated with CLA including changes in body fat with ultra high dose CLA. However, the difference in CLA content is also biologically meaningless – 56 mg in a glass of organic whole milk and 47 mg in a class of conventional whole milk.

The British Journal of Nutrition research also showed slightly higher beta carotene and vitamin E in organic milk. These very small differences may be due to a host of reasons including seasonal variation and breed. Milk is not a major source of these nutrients, so this has no biological impact on human health. If you want iron, eat more red meat, fish and poultry or plant-based sources including beans, lentils and peas (eat them alongside a vitamin C rich food to increase the absorption of plant-based iron). For vitamin E your best bets are oils, nuts and seeds.

  • Key point: statistical significance ≠biological relevance.

Is Grass Fed Beef Better?

If you’re one of many Americans paying a premium for grass fed beef because it contains more omega-3s and less saturated fat than it’s unassuming conventional counterparts, it may be time to reconsider where you’re spending your grocery money.

The omega-3s in grass fed beef are different than the kind in fatty fish. Fatty fish and algae contain EPA and DHA. There’s a third omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), found in plants including walnuts, soybeans, pumpkin seeds, flaxseeds and chia seeds. Grass fed beef contains ALA because flaxseeds are added to their feed. While EPA and DHA lower blood fats (triglycerides) and are tied to heart benefits, ALA does not lower blood fats and is not associated with the same heart health benefits. ALA rich foods also contain a variety of other bioactive compounds that may act independently or synergistically to improve cardiovascular disease risk factors (eat the whole food not just ALA). The human body can convert ALA to EPA and DHA but this conversion process is inefficient. Less than 4% of ALA is converted to EPA and less than 1% makes its way to DHA. ALA ≠EPA + DHA. A 5-ounce serving of grass fed beef contains a whopping 20 to 30 mg of ALA (slight variations in brands of grass fed beef based on the cow’s diet). The Adequate Intake for ALA is 1,600 and 1,100 grams per day for adult men and women, respectively. Eat grass fed beef and you’ll get 2 – 3% of the AI for ALA for men and 1-2% for women.

Grass fed beef and conventional beef have the same amount of saturated fat with some differences in the types of saturated fatty acids. The difference in CLA content of grass fed and conventional beef is tiny. According to a review from Dave et al. (Nutr J 2010;9:10), it ranges from 0.13 – 2.65 (grams CLA/100 grams of fat in the meat) in conventional meat and 0.43 – 5.14 (grams CLA/100 grams of fat in the meat) in grass fed beef depending on the cow and feed. So, you could be getting less total CLA in certain cuts of grass fed beef than conventional beef. 

What about the Bacteria in Conventional Beef?
You cook your beef right? Bacteria is killed during cooking. Moot point.

Is Grass Fed More Sustainable? What about Hormones and Antibiotics?
I will address this and other issues in the next post. Stay tuned….

Organic dairy products and grass fed beef come in beautiful, higher end packaging with natural hues of green and brown outlining their superiority to modest looking products that sit beside them on store shelves. If you love the taste, stick with your organic milk and grass fed beef. But don’t buy into the marketing hype.

References

Circulation 2011;123(20):2292-333.
British Journal of Nutrition 2016;115:1043–1060.
PLoS One 2013; 8(12): e82429.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001;74:612–9.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999;69:890–7.
British Medical Journal 1996;313:84–90.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;89(5):1649S-56S.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;83(6):S1526-1535.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12): e82429.
Nutrition Journal 2010, 9:10.

 

 

 

 

Meal Delivery Services & Menu Planning

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Tilapia

Menu Planning

If spending time on Pinterest boards trying to figure out what you should make for dinner this week isn’t exactly your thing, save time and energy by letting a pro do the work for you.  My colleagues at My Menu Pal sell individual meal plans for incredible prices (just $1.49 for 4 entrees, 1 – 2 side dishes with each entree, Nutrition Facts, helpful hints and a shopping list). Check out their current special and E-book by clicking here. If you want to do even less work, consider a meal delivery service.

Meal Delivery Services

There are two different types of meal delivery services – one involves popping the meals in the oven and setting the timer (I call these Heat and Eat). The second kind sends you a box of ingredients and a recipe and its your job to put the meal together (Recipe Creations). Though they cost more than buying the ingredients and cooking for yourself, they save time (and time is money, especially if you work for yourself) and may actually cost less in the the long run if you frequently eat out or food goes bad before you get a chance to eat it.

Heat and Eat

This option is for someone who travels often, is too busy to shop and cook or doesn’t want to cook. Your meals will be delivered to your doorstep and your only job is to heat them up. Most of these services have a limited number of selections that you will get tired of eating over and over again for months at a time. However, they also serve as good fill-in meals if you want a few per week to save some time on food preparation and you can cook the rest of the time.

Healthy Chef Creations:
This service includes breakfast, lunch, and dinner options. Dinners start at 15.99 for a “regular size” meal and cost about $21.99 for a “large size” meal (free shipping). Nutrition information isn’t listed though you can customize the meals to suit your dietary needs. They include a few quacky things like detox drinks and don’t have a nutrition expert overseeing their meals.

Fitzee Foods:
This menu service includes breakfast, lunch, and dinner options as well as small, medium and large portion sizes for all meals. They have several healthy options. Calories and macronutrients are listed based on portion size. Meals start at $8.95 (free shipping).

Fuel Food:
Meals are weighed and portioned. Each meal is $7.50 (if you order 300 meals!) or more. Shipping is $5 per meal in FL and more in other states.

LA or Phoenix: Sunfare. They have a few different meal options including Artisan (organic, gluten-free, non-GMO, Vegetarian, and Paleo.

New Orleans: there are many local options. Check them out by clicking here.

Recipe Creations

This style of meal delivery is for people who don’t want to shop or measure ingredients but do want to cook. All of the ingredients are measured and delivered to your door along with the recipe. Choose this service if you enjoy cooking but you want the convenience of somebody shopping for you. You will spend time on on meal preparation – sometimes more than 30 minutes. Advantages: no food waste, saves shopping time.
Disadvantages:  if you are short on time this option is not for you because you will spend time cooking. Meal delivery services aren’t for very choosy eaters or those who have several food allergies or  sensitivities.

Plated – this nationwide subscription service allows you to choose anywhere from 1 – 7 meals per week. They offer 9 total choices per week including vegetarian, meat and seafood options.

  • Cost: starts at $12 per serving (for one person).
  • Nutrition Facts: they estimate their meals are 600-800 calories each. Click on each entrée to find out the nutrition information.

Blue Apron – this nationwide subscription service is flexible and has a wide array of recipes (there are no repeats within the same calendar).  Try before you buy – they list all recipes for each dish on their website (click on one and scroll down).  They also offer free recipes emailed to you each week (scroll down to the bottom of this page).

  • Cost: starts at about $9 per serving.
  • Nutrition Facts:  these are provided under each recipe with the caveat that different sizes of produce and amount of oil used will alter the nutrition facts.

Hello Fresh – this nationwide delivery service has three different choices and will, omnivores (meat eaters), vegetarians and a family box.

  • Cost: starts at $8.75 per person.
  • Nutrition Facts: none that I could find. They estimate each meal contains 500-800 calories per serving.

Peach Dish –  Southern cooking delivered nationwide.

  • Cost: though this service is $12.50 per meal, there’s additional shipping fee in several states including AZ, CA, CO, IA, ID, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, NV, OK, OR, SD, UT, WA, WY.
  • Nutrition Facts: listed as a separate tab on each recipe.

If you’ve tried any of these meal delivery services, please leave comments!

Meal Planning Made Easy

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salmon with veggies

If you don’t have the luxury of eating in a cafeteria with a variety of options each day, it makes sense to plan your meals ahead of time. Doing so will save you time and money. If saving money doesn’t entice you, consider this: eating at home can help you lose weight. A study published in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics found the average meal at 360 restaurant dinner meals examined contained 1,200 calories. If you choose to dine at an American, Italian or Chinese restaurant, that meal may cost you a whopping 1,495 calories. Don’t worry, I have no intention of having you replicate the instagram photos from fitness buffs who eat perfectly portioned bland-looking chicken, broccoli and brown rice twice a day, every day. Instead, I am an advocate for taste, variety, and better nutrition. Here are the 4 steps you should take to start planning better-for-you meals ahead of time:

1 – Take Inventory

Go through your cabinets, refrigerator and freezer at least once per month and throw out anything that is past it’s expiration date, freezer burned, molded, and stale or smells bad (smell your cooking oil too and if it doesn’t smell normal, toss it). Half-eaten anything that is more than a day old? Trash. This is also a great time to take inventory of what you have on hand.

2 – Stock Your Kitchen

After taking inventory, decide what you need (sticking to your grocery list will save you from impulse buys you don’t need after looking at your grocery store circular). Essential foods include shelf stable, refrigerator and frozen foods. I like the option of preparing a meal in 5 minutes or less. Frozen and canned items allow me to do this.

Shelf Stable:

  • Beans, lentils and legumes (tip: some lentils can be soaked for just 40 minutes and added to a wide variety of dishes from salads to spouse, stews and grain-based dishes)
  • Bread
  • Canned vegetables, beans, fish and chicken
  • Condiments including chicken, beef or vegetable broth, mustard, hot sauce and any other commonly used condiments
  • Cooking oil – get good quality cooking oil. Pay more for a brand you trust. Olive oil is the most adulterated food on the market so you do get what you pay for.
  • Nutrition bars
  • Nuts, nut butters and seeds (all can be refrigerated; opened nut butters should be refrigerated)
  • Popcorn, whole grain snacks
  • Protein powder
  • Rice, pasta, whole grains, cereals and other similar foods. Grab a few options that you can make in a just a few minutes including couscous. Also, vary your rice, pasta and whole grains – look for black, red or purple rice, bean pastas and more.
  • Soups (boxed, bagged or in cans)
  • Spices & seasonings (including salt and pepper). If you don’t use these regularly get dried spices or refrigerated spices in squeezable tubes.
  • Ziploc bags – these will come in very handy if you travel (always pack food and supplements to go)!

Fresh:

  • Dairy (milk, yogurt, cheese)
  • Eggs (consider egg substitutes for their shelf life)
  • Fresh vegetables and fruits
  • Fish, poultry, meat

Frozen:

  • Fish, poultry, meat
  • Fruit
  • Vegetables

3 – Menu Planning

There are a number of ways you can approach menu planning but one of the easiest ways is to center your meals around the protein rich foods you plan on eating. So for instance, if you choose chicken, lean ground beef and fish, you can center 7 meals on those three proteins. Or, if your week is hectic and you are very busy, you can plan meals around protein-rich foods that take just minutes to prepare such as canned tuna, eggs and rotisserie chicken.

After you pick your protein rich foods, decide on recipes or quick prep meals. You might want to do this by determining what perishable foods you have on hand and need to use. So, let’s say you have mushrooms in the refrigerator and chicken defrosting. If you don’t feel like eating chicken Marsala but you aren’t sure what else you can make with a little flavor, type these words in Google to get other meal ideas “chicken, mushrooms, recipe, quick, easy.” (Also check out Cookinglight.com’s “5 Ingredient Cookbook, Fresh Food Fast”)

After determining which meals you are eating each day of the week, write a shopping list by figuring out any extras you may need to buy and what staple foods you are out of. Be flexible with your list depending on the season and sale prices. Shopping in season often means you will not only get the best looking produce but you will save money too. So for instance, if your recipe calls for sweet potatoes but butternut squash is a steal – go for the squash.  When you make your shopping list, you can do it on an app, in the notes section on your phone, or the old fashioned way with pen and paper. I make mine in the order of the grocery store I am shopping in so I can cross items off one by one without having to scan the entire list to make sure I’m not forgetting something before I move onto the next section of the store.

If the weekly circular tempts you with sugary cereals, cookies and candies on sale, don’t pick it up. You won’t miss out on a bargain because you’ll figure out which healthy foods are on sale when you look for the items on your list – all stores flag these items for you.

Quick sample meal ideas:

  • Rotisserie chicken, 10 minute brown rice (or thawed and microwave brown rice from your freezer), frozen veggies
  • Rotisserie chicken wraps with hummus (spread the hummus on first) and any crunch veggies you desire (shopped carrots, cucumbers etc.)
  • Whole-wheat pasta, spaghetti sauce and frozen turkey meatballs with added veggies such as cooked (or steamed) mushrooms, squash, zucchini
  • Whole wheat pasta, canned tuna, light cream of mushroom soup (either made into a casserole and baked along with frozen peas, ½ cup milk and chopped onions at 400ºF for 20 minutes or you can heat up the soup and mix the ingredients together and eat it.
  • Canned tuna, light mayo, chopped celery and onions for a tuna sandwich.
  • Grilled salmon drizzled with lemon, asparagus and a sweet potato.

4 – Storing and Packing

You can freeze almost any food and reheat it easily. Even brown rice – just cook it, let it cool completely and portion it into zip-loc bags (make sure no air is in the bag) for later. Two important things to remember when freezing foods – freeze them in airtight containers and label them so you know what you made and when it was frozen. The longer you leave food in the freezer the greater the likelihood of texture and taste changes over time (sometimes resulting in freezer burn). Foods that freeze well include:

  • Breads
  • Canned foods (once out of the can of course)
  • Casseroles (keep in mind that mayonnaise and other cream sauces do not freeze well)
  • Egg whites (raw)
  • Grains, cooked
  • Granola (homemade or store bought)
  • Herbs, fresh
  • Nuts, seeds (these should not be kept opened on shelves for long periods of time as they can go rancid)
  • Cheese – some types freeze better than others
  • Fish, poultry, meat (raw meat and poultry freezes better than cooked meat and poultry because of moisture lost during cooking).
  • Fruit, though this must be completely dry and frozen in portions (unless you want it stuck together in big clumps). The texture may change so fresh fruit that is frozen may be best used when blended in shakes.
  • Sauces
  • Soups, stews, stock
  • Yogurt – if you want to eat it frozen. If it defrosts the consistency isn’t so great.

Thaw food in the refrigerator, a microwave or immersed in cold water only (in a leak proof plastic bag submerged in the water that should be changed every 30 minutes), not out on countertops or in kitchen sinks.

Recommended Freezer Storage Time (for quality only, frozen food is safe indefinitely if left frozen).

Food Months
Bacon and Sausage 1 – 2
Casseroles 2 – 3
Egg whites or egg substitutes 12
Frozen dinners 3 – 4
Ham, hotdogs, lunchmeats 1 – 2
Meat, uncooked roasts 4 – 12
Meat, uncooked steaks or chops 4 – 12
Meat, uncooked ground 3 – 4
Meat, cooked 2 – 3
Poultry, uncooked whole 12
Poultry, uncooked parts 9
Poultry, cooked 4
Soups and stews 2 – 3
Wild game, uncooked 8 – 12

See, that wasn’t so tough! Get started planning, preparing and cooking right away. If there are a limited number of dishes you feel comfortable cooking, check out quick and easy cookbooks or resources on line. Each time you try a new recipe you’ll expand your horizons and taste buds and also be able to prepare a wider variety of meals on the fly in the future.

References
USDA. Freezing and Food Safety. http://www.fsis.usda.gov/factsheets/focus_on_freezing/

 

The Truth about Detox Diets

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Detox Diets and Cleanses

Detox diets promise to clean up the mess left behind from daily life so you feel better, more energetic and lose excess body fat. Consider them the Merry Maids for your body. They come with an army of equipment and compounds to attack years of buildup from environmental toxins, pesticides, allergens, waste, and inflammatory substances. This “sewage sludge” is stuck to your gut, interfering with digestion, leaving you bloated, tired, fat and with joints and muscles that feel like they are on fire.

In theory this sounds great. But there’s one glaring issue. The human body doesn’t need to “detox” because it comes equipped with organs designed to remove waste products. Plus, many detox diets are simply very low calorie plans with added laxatives and diuretics (because instant, yet temporary, weight loss might fool you into believing the outrageous claims on detox and cleansing products). Instead of wasting your money, take the top 3 good points about many of these diets and incorporate them into your overall nutrition plan:

Drink More Water

There are a few studies showing that individuals who are obese can lose weight by drinking 2 glasses of water before each meal. Plus, many people don’t get enough water or total fluids each day anyway and dehydration can make you feel sluggish and grouchy. So, grab it from the tap or if it’s more convenient, fill up your stainless steal water bottles and carry them with you at all times.

Eat More Fruits and Vegetables

The average American is falling short on fruit and vegetable intake. According to the National Cancer Institute, people with diets rich in plant foods, such as fruits and vegetables, have a lower risk of getting some types of cancer as well as diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure. Produce generally has fewer calories than many other foods making it a great addition to a weight loss diet.

Get Friendly with Bacteria

Many detox plans include unfiltered apple cider vinegar – the kind that has a cloudy appearance – is full of probiotics. Probiotics are friendly (beneficial) bacteria – the kind that live in your gut and have a number of important functions in your body. Improving your gut bacteria may support immune functioning, improve the health of your intestinal tract, increase your body’s absorption of certain nutrients and alleviate constipation. Apple cider vinegar is acidic so I don’t recommend drinking it straight. Instead, dilute it in a big glass of water or another beverage. Other great sources of probiotics include kefir, yogurt (check the container for “live and active cultures”), miso soup, tempeh, sauerkraut, kimchi.

Add 2 glasses of water before each meal, load up on vegetables and fruits and make an effort to consume probiotic-rich food daily and you will reap the rewards of better nutrition without wasting money on detox diets and cleanses.

References:
Parvez J et al. J Appl Microbio 2006;100(6):1171-1185.
Parretti HM et al. Obesity 2015, 23(8):1785-1791.
Dennis EA et al. Obesity 2010;18(2):300-307.

 

Tackling Concussions Head-On: How Nutrition Can Improve Outcomes

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football

I sat on the floor hunched over and crying. My elbows were raised – close to my eyes as my arms hugged my head, hands clenched at the base of my neck. My brain felt like a percussion instrument shaking inside my skull. As the pounding grew more intense the pain became unbearable. I had a concussion, my second in two years, which earned me a night in the ER.

Concussions are common in sports and recreation. Though considered a mild type of traumatic brain injury because they are usually not life-threatening, all concussions should be taken seriously. A single blow to the head can result in short-term loss of brain functioning or long-term changes in thinking, language, emotions and sensations including taste, touch and smell (1). Repeated concussions can be very dangerous and may lead to permanent changes in brain functioning or in extreme cases, death (2). Though widely recognized in football players, concussions happen in all sports – even in everyday activities – and they are occurring at younger ages. Athletes who have had one concussion have a greater risk (2 – 5.8 times higher) of experiencing another concussion (3). Multiple blows to the head could lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with poor memory, changes in personality, behavior, speech and gait (4). Posthumous examination of some former NFL players in addition to a few college football players who committed suicide revealed CTE. In March 2016, the NFL acknowledged the link between traumatic brain injury and CTE. The movie ‘Concussion,’ set for release in late December, 2015 highlights concussions in former NFL players though the league has gone to great lengths to make today’s game safer.

Decreasing the Damaging Effects from Concussions

Anyone who experiences a blow to their head or body (a forceful blow to the body can cause the brain to shake inside the skull) should be immediately examined by a physician with experience in the evaluation and management of concussions. Though the person may say they feel fine and can continue with regular activities, symptoms of concussion do not always appear immediately and may instead be delayed for several hours. Continuing to play or perform mental tasks like studying can increase severity or symptoms and cause complications including the possibility of developing permanent brain damage.

Symptoms of Concussion may include:

  • Confusion
  • Headache
  • Vision changes
  • Memory loss
  • Difficulty with coordination, clumsiness or stumbling
  • Dizziness
  • Irritability
  • Personality changes
  • Slurred speech
  • Delayed response to questions
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Sensitivity to light and noise
  • Problems sleeping
  • Seizures
  • Loss of consciousness

In addition to the symptoms that occur soon after a concussion, some people experience Post-Concussion Syndrome (PCS) days or weeks later. PCS can cause many of the same symptoms experienced after a concussion as well as trouble concentrating, apathy, depression and anxiety. Symptoms may last a few weeks. If you suspect PCS, have the patient evaluated by a psychiatrist (5).

Nutrition Management

In addition to rest, following a graduated return-to-play and school protocol, and other steps you should take to treat concussions, emerging research suggests nutrition may play an important role. Certain nutrients seem to help reduce some of the damaging effects from concussions:

Protein: 1 – 1.5 grams of protein per kg body weight per day is recommended along with sufficient calories to reduce the inflammatory response (6).

EPA and DHA Omega-3 Fatty Acids: EPA and DHA, omega-3 fatty acids found in fish and algae, increase fluidity of cell membranes, reduce inflammation and enhance cerebral blood flow (which is reduced for up to a month or longer in athletes that recover slowly) (7). Cell membranes are like gateways allowing substances to enter cells or blocking their entry. When cell membranes are more fluid (and therefore less rigid), they perform better, opening the gate for nutrients to come in. DHA, in particular, makes up 97% of the omega-3 fatty acids in the brain and is essential for normal brain functioning (8). Several animal studies show EPA and DHA supplementation before or after a traumatic brain injury helps limit structural damage and decline in brain functioning (9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15).

There is no clear consensus regarding optimal intake of EPA and DHA prior to or after a concussion. Given that many Americans do not eat enough fish and an estimated 75% of American diets are too low in EPA and DHA, it makes sense to start by meeting the general guidelines for recommended intake of EPA and DHA by:

  • Consuming fatty fish varieties that contain high levels of omega-3s, including salmon, tuna, mackerel and herring at least twice per week;
  • Take an omega-3 supplement providing EPA+DHA daily (be sure to look for high-quality fish oil, algal oil or krill oil supplements in your local grocery or health store);
  • Eat and drink DHA omega-3-fortified foods and beverages, including milk, 100% juice, and yogurt.

Research has yet to identify exactly how much EPA + DHA may be helpful after a concussion. However, according to the Food & Drug Administration (FDA), doses of EPA + DHA up to 3 grams per day are considered safe.

Zinc is necessary for optimal brain functioning while a deficiency of this mineral may compound oxidative damage from concussions. Though zinc supplementation may be an effective treatment modality, additional research needs to determine if zinc supplementation is safe after concussions. The Upper Limit for zinc is 40 mg per day.

Animal and human studies suggest creatine helps prevent secondary brain injury after traumatic brain injury. However, animal studies show long-term creatine intake may decrease its beneficial effects on the brain after injury. Future research needs to better elucidate the relationship between creatine pre-TBI and creatine post-TBI and outcomes.

Other potential approaches to addressing concussions through nutrition include ketogenic diets which are very high-fat, minimal-carbohydrate diets that are effectively used to decrease both the incidence and severity of seizures in children with epilepsy. Ketogenic diets provide an alternate energy source for brain functioning – ketones derived from the breakdown of fat. This may be important since available glucose, the primary energy source for brain functioning, may be decreased after a concussion.

Current research supports the integration of a dietitian into the team of health professionals treating concussions. Though nutrition interventions are considered preliminary at this time, consideration should be given to nutrition strategies that may reduce long-term effects while causing no further harm.

Disclosure: I am a GOED/Omega-3 Science Advisory Council Member supporting the research behind omega-3 EPA and DHA for a healthy brain, heart and eyes.

References

1 What are the Potential Effects of TBI? Injury Prevention & Control: Traumatic Brain Injury. CDC. http://www.cdc.gov/TraumaticBrainInjury/outcomes.html

Concussion (Traumatic Brain Injury). Pubmed Health.

3  Harmon KG, et al. American Medical Society for Sports Medicine position statement: concussion in sport. Br J Sports Med 2013;47:15-26. http://www.amssm.org/Content/pdf%20files/2012_ConcussionPositionStmt.pdf

4  McKee AC, Cantu RC, Nowinski CJ, Hedley-Whyte T, Gavett BE, Budson AE, Santini VE, Lee H, Kubilus CA, Stern RA. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Athletes: Progressive Tauopathy following Repetitive Head Injury. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2009; 68(7): 709–735.

Post-Concussion Syndrome. PubMed Health 

6 Nutrition and Traumatic Brain Injury: Improving Acute and Subacute Health Outcomes in Military Personnel. The National Academies Press. 2011. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/13121/nutrition-and-traumatic-brain-injury-improving-acute-and-subacute-health

7  Meier TB, Bellgowan PS, Singh R, Kuplicki R, Polanski DW, Mayer AR. Recovery of cerebral blood flow following sports-related concussion. JAMA Neurol 2015;72(5):530-8.

8 Salem N Jr, Litman B, Kim HY, Gawrisch K. Mechanisms of action of docosahexaenoic acid in the nervous system. Lipids 2001; 36(9):945-59.

9 Mills JD, Hadley K, Bailes J. Dietary supplementation with the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid in traumatic brain injury? Neurosurgery 2011;68:474–81

10 Wu A, Ying Z, Gomez-Pinilla F. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation restores mechanisms that maintain brain homeostasis in traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 2007;24:1587–95

11 Wu A, Ying Z, Gomez-Pinilla F. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids normalize BDNF levels, reduce oxidative damage, and counteract learning disability after traumatic brain injury in rats. J Neurotrauma 2004;21:1457–67

12 Wang T, Van K, Gavitt B, Grayson J, Lu T, Lyeth B, Pichakron K. Effect of fish oil supplementation in a rat model of multiple mild traumatic brain injuries. Restor Neurol Neurosci 2013;31:647–59

13 Mills JD, Bailes J, Sedney C, Hutchins H, Sears B. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and reduction of traumatic axonal injury in a rodent head injury model. J Neurosurg 2011;114:77–84

14 Wu A, Ying Z, Gomez-Pinilla F. The salutary effects of DHA dietary supplementation on cognition, neuroplasticity, and membrane homeostasis after brain trauma. J Neurotrauma 2011;28:2113–22

15  Wu A, Ying Z, Gomez-Pinilla F. Exercise facilitates the action of dietary DHA on functional recovery after brain trauma. Neuroscience 2013;248:655–63

Quick and Easy Garlic & Herb Quiche

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quiche
Easy Garlic & Herb Quiche

When cooking I always try to use the best tasting ingredients possible.  Better ingredients = a great tasting dish! For this easy-to-make quiche I used King Arthur Flour and Cabot Garlic & Herb cheese (both samples).

Garlic & Herb Quiche

King Arthur’s Pie Crust

Filling:
Ingredients
4 eggs
6 fluid oz. fat-free half-and-half (about 3/4 cup)
1 bunch green onions, finely chopped
6 oz. Cabot Garlic & Herb Cheddar Cheese, shredded
pepper to taste (a dash)

Directions
Make King Arthur’s Pie Crust first (optional: add cheese to the mixture if you want a cheesy-tasting crust). When removed from refrigerator, roll crust until flat and place in a 9″ pie pan.

Preheat oven to 350°F.  Place all 4 eggs in a bowl and whisk until foamy. Add half-and-half to your eggs and gently mix with whisk. Add green onions and Cabot Garlic & Herb Cheddar Cheese until ingredients are evenly combined. Pour egg mixture into prepared pie crust, top crust with a pie crust shield or aluminum foil to prevent the crust from burning. Place dish in the oven for 30 minutes or until middle does not jiggle and toothpick comes out clean (place toothpick in the center to determine if the middle is cooked throughout).

For more delicious recipes check out Cabot’s Quiche Feast.

 

Should Endurance Athletes Switch to a Low Carbohydrate Diet?

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High carbohydrate pasta with tomatoes
Pasta – a typical meal for endurance athletes.

Should endurance athletes trade in their high carbohydrate gels, gummies, and pasta for fatty steak and butter?  A recent study found elite ultra-marathoners and iron distance triathletes on a low carbohydrate diet  burned significantly more fat while running than  their counterparts on a typical higher carbohydrate diet. There was no difference in the level of glycogen depletion between groups after a 3-hour run.

Why Carbohydrates Matter

For several decades endurance athletes have relied on a carbohydrate rich diet to fuel their training and performance. Carbohydrates are the primary source of energy used during activity. They’re also a fast fuel – your body can use gels, gummies and sports drinks very quickly while also accessing the carbohydrates stored in your muscle when your energy needs outpace how quickly you can squirt more gel in your mouth. Regular intake of carbohydrates during  prolonged activity provides an important source of energy for working muscles and helps spare dipping into your reserves in muscle tissue (in the form of glycogen). Once glycogen levels start getting too low, your performance will subsequently decline.

If carbohydrates are important for performance why would anyone go on a low carbohydrate diet?

The longer you run, bike, swim or exercise in general, the more carbohydrates you need to keep up with energy demands. There are three main reasons athletes (particularly ultra endurance athletes) want an approach that doesn’t require carbohydrate during long bouts of exercise are:

  1. Your taste buds get tired –  Eat any food over and over again and you will get sick of it eventually. Now imagine running 30, 50 or 100 miles and eating a gel every 30 minutes. The consistency, sweetness and flavors will make your taste buds revolt.
  2. Your stomach might get upset. Exercise + eating (even seemingly easy to digest carbohydrate products) can cause stomach upset in some people.
  3. You are trying to lose body fat. If you are exercising for long periods of time it may sound counterintuitive to consume 30-60 grams of carbohydrate (or 90+ depending on the type of carbohydrate, your stomach’s tolerance and the type of exercise you’re doing) each hour while training.

If any of these apply to you, a diet that doesn’t force your body to rely on carbohydrates for energy may sound very appealing.

The Study & the Low Carb Diets for Endurance Athletes

The body has amazing ability to adapt to changes in the macronutrient composition of your diet.  In other words, if you eat more fat you’ll burn more fat. If you are adapted to a low carbohydrate diet, you will rely on your body fat for fuel and will not need to consume gels, gummies or any other carbohydrates while running, biking or swimming. However, there is an adaptation period.  It takes time for your body to switch over from relying on carbohydrate to fuel activity to using primarily fat. The study subjects included elite male ultra-endurance athletes who habitually consumed a high carbohydrate diet (> 55% of calories from carbohydrate) and a separate group of those habitually consuming  a low carbohydrate diet (< 20% of calories from carbohydrate and > 60% from fat though the average was 70% from fat) for at least 9 months. Both groups slept, reported to the lab fasted and then drank a 343 calorie shake (the shake contained 4.3 grams of carbohydrate for the low carbohydrate group and  42.7 g of carbohydrate for the high carbohydrate group). Ninety minutes later they ran on a treadmill.

Results

As expected, the low carbohydrate high-fat diet group used a lot more fat when jogging then the high carbohydrate group (88% of calories from fat vs. 56% in the high carbohydrate group). They also used more fat at a higher intensity than the high carbohydrate diet group. They were able to use fat at a good rate – fat is typically a slow source of energy but the rate of fat use in this fat-adapted group was pretty compatible to the typical rate (but not the maximum) at which an athlete can use carbohydrates. Glycogen levels at rest, glycogen breakdown during exercise and re-synthesis after exercise was the same in both groups. * There was no difference in the amount of calories burned between the two groups.

Is This Diet Right for You?

Ultra endurance athletes can adapt to and train on a higher fat diet.  They can also do this without glycogen depletion – glycogen depletion can come with other negative consequences including potential suppression of immune system functioning.  At this time, we do not know if regularly following a lower carbohydrate diet = better endurance performance.

What you need to consider:

  • According to this study you will not burn more calories during exercise when on a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. ** See note below.
  • Your body needs at least 1 month to adjust. The first week will probably suck (you’ll feel terrible and have low energy).
  • You might not improve performance (we don’t know).
  • Can you stay on a low carbohydrate, high fat diet? Do milkshakes made of  heavy cream, olive oil, walnut oil and whey protein sound yummy? Is this diet practical for your lifestyle? If you answer yes to those 2 questions,  then it might be worth a shot. Work with a nutrition expert to ensure you are getting all of the fiber, vitamins, and minerals you need for performance and health.

* Keep in mind the results from this study are specific to endurance athletes.

** If weight loss is your goal, it makes no difference if you burn more fat during exercise if you aren’t burning more total calories in that exercise session. The only caveat here is if a low carb diet means you consume few to no calories during exercise. In this scenario, a low-carb diet may help you consume fewer total daily calories.

What Causes Muscle Cramps? How Can I Prevent Them?

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Muscle cramp
There are two main types of muscle cramps. If you can identify which one you are experiencing you may be able to stop cramping sooner and prevent future cramps.

Localized Muscle Cramping

Localized muscle cramps happen suddenly when a muscle is overworked and tired.

They feel like: constant pain.

Risk factors include: several factors may contribute to localized muscle cramping including: older age, history of cramping, metabolic disturbances, poor conditioning (or increasing the intensity of your training before you are ready) and not stretching. 

Treatment: for this type of cramping should include passive stretching, massage, active contraction of the antagonist or opposing muscle group (for instance, if your hamstrings are cramping, contract your quads), and icing.

Prevention:  Stretching (hold your stretch for at least 30 seconds), using proper movement patterns (biomechanics) and making sure you are conditioned before increasing the intensity of your training.

Exertional Heat Cramps

Exertional heat cramps are due to extensive sweating and low sodium levels from not consuming enough sodium and/or losing too much sodium through sweat.

They feel like: initially you may feel brief, spontaneous contractions that take time to develop followed by debilitating, widespread muscle spasms.

Risk factors include: high sweat rate, little sodium intake (especially if you lose a lot of sodium through sweat or over consume water or other no or low sodium drinks).

Treatment: replacing both fluid and sodium losses as soon as you start cramping. You can use an electrolyte replacement product or table salt! IVs are sometimes used to expedite this process. Massage and ice can also help relax the muscles and relieve discomfort.

Prevention: if you are a “salty sweater” – you see white salt crystals on your clothes, face or other parts of your body, be sure to salt your food prior to training and competing and consume enough sodium in your sports drink to prevent excessive sodium losses.

If you know what type of cramps you are prone to, you can better incorporate prevention methods and have treatment options readily available to stop cramping as soon as possible [ice, sports drinks, electrolyte products, table salt (restaurant salt packets in a ziplock bag always come in handy), a good athletic trainer nearby etc.].

As a review, here are your prevention strategies for cramping:

  • If you have a history of heat cramping, know that your cramps will likely reoccur at some point during training or competition.
  • Make sure you are conditioned before increasing the load or intensity of your training.
  • Incorporate stretching or hot yoga into your training regimen.
  • Give your body time to adjust to changes in elevation, heat and humidity.
  • Salt your food!
  • Do not over-consume water or any other low or no sodium beverage or you’ll dilute your blood sodium level and set yourself up for cramps.
  • Weigh yourself pre- and post- training. For each lb lost, consume 20 – 24 oz of an electrolyte-replacement drink.
  • Work with a sports dietitian or athletic trainer (ATC) to develop a hydration-electrolyte plan that specifically meets your needs. Sports drinks do not contain enough sodium for salty sweaters and those prone to exertional heat cramps.